Are Ultra-Long Gamma-Ray Bursts Caused by Blue Supergiant Collapsars, Newborn Magnetars, or White Dwarf Tidal Disruption Events?

@article{Ioka2016AreUG,
  title={Are Ultra-Long Gamma-Ray Bursts Caused by Blue Supergiant Collapsars, Newborn Magnetars, or White Dwarf Tidal Disruption Events?},
  author={Kunihito Ioka and Kenta Hotokezaka and Tsvi Piran},
  journal={arXiv: High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena},
  year={2016}
}
Ultra-long gamma-ray bursts (ulGRBs) are a new population of GRBs with extreme durations of $\sim 10^{4}$ s. Leading candidates for their origin are blue supergiant collapsars, magnetars, and white dwarf tidal disruption events (WD-TDEs) caused by massive black holes (BHs). Recent observations of supernova-like (SN-like) bumps associated with ulGRBs challenged both the WD-TDE and the blue supergiant models because of the detection of SNe and the absence of hydrogen lines, respectively. We… Expand

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