Are Japanese More Collectivistic Than Americans?

  title={Are Japanese More Collectivistic Than Americans?},
  author={Yohtaro Takano and Shunya Sogon},
  journal={Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology},
  pages={237 - 250}
  • Y. Takano, S. Sogon
  • Published 7 February 2008
  • Education
  • Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
This study examines whether the common view that Japanese are more collectivistic than Americans is valid or not in three respects: First, the authors point out that those empirical studies that were directly related to the commonly accepted definition of individualism and collectivism (I/C) did not support the common view and that those studies whose relations to I/C were merely inferred were inappropriate in judging its validity. Second, the authors show that the reference-group effect (Heine… 

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