Are European White Butterflies Aposematic?

@article{Lyytinen2004AreEW,
  title={Are European White Butterflies Aposematic?},
  author={Anne Lyytinen and Rauno V. Alatalo and Leena Lindstr{\"o}m and Johanna Mappes},
  journal={Evolutionary Ecology},
  year={2004},
  volume={13},
  pages={709-719}
}
It has been suggested that the white coloration of Pieridae butterflies is a warning signal and therefore all white Pieridae could profit from a mimetic resemblance. We tested whether green-veined white (Pieris napi) and orange-tip (Anthocharis cardamines) butterflies benefit from white coloration. We compared their relative acceptability to wild, adult pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) by offering live A. cardamines and P. napi together with two non-aposematic butterflies on the tray… 

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References

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It is suggested that Pieris butterflies are relatively unpalatable to visual predators, supporting the idea that the white wing pigment of Pieris represents aposematic coloration, and the degree of palatibility may vary among Pieris species.

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