Are Brazilian cervids at risk of prion diseases?

@article{Falco2017AreBC,
  title={Are Brazilian cervids at risk of prion diseases?},
  author={Caio Bruno Ribeiro Falc{\~a}o and Isabel Luiza de Melo Nunes Freire Lima and Jos{\'e} Maur{\'i}cio Barbanti Duarte and Jo{\~a}o Ricardo Mendes de Oliveira and Rodrigo Augusto Torres and Artur M. Wanderley and Jos{\'e} Eriton Gomes da Cunha and Jos{\'e} E. Garcia},
  journal={Prion},
  year={2017},
  volume={11},
  pages={65 - 70}
}
ABSTRACT Prion diseases are neurodegenerative fatal disorders that affect human and non-human mammals. Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD) is a prion disease of cervids regarded as a public health problem in North America, and polymorphisms at specific codons in the PRNP gene are associated with this disease. To assess the potential CWD susceptibility of South American free-ranging deer, the presence of these polymorphisms was examined in Mazama gouazoubira, Ozotoceros bezoarticus and Blastocerus… 
Chronic wasting disease in Norway - a survey of prion protein gene variation among cervids.
TLDR
Overall, PRNP genetic data indicate considerable susceptibility to CWD among Norwegian cervids and suggest that PRNP homozygosity may be a risk factor for the atypical CWD observed in moose.
Characterization of the prion protein gene in axis deer (Axis axis) and implications for susceptibility to chronic wasting disease
TLDR
Proactively increasing CWD surveillance for axis deer is recommended, particularly where CWD has been detected and axis deer are sympatric with native North American CWD susceptible species.
Novel Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and Genetic Features of the Prion Protein Gene (PRNP) in Quail (Coturnix japonica)
TLDR
Quail PrP showed a close evolutionary relationship and similar secondary and tertiary structures to chicken PrP compared to duck PrP, the first report on the genetic and structural properties of the quail PRNP gene.
A Non-invasive, Biomarker Assay for Detecting Chronic Wasting Disease Pathology in White-tailed Deer
TLDR
This antemortem biomarker-based test offers a new addition to the resources available for monitoring and managing transmission and spread of CWD that is potentially more rapid and sensitive, and amenable to high throughput scaling.
A retrospective pathology study of two Neotropical deer species (1995-2015), Brazil: Marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) and brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira)
TLDR
Evidence that respiratory disease, mainly pneumonia, is a critical pathological process in these Neotropical deer species is provided, and it is proposed to prioritize respiratory disease in future research focused on South American deer health aspects.

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 38 REFERENCES
Chronic wasting disease.
PrP genotypes of captive and free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease.
TLDR
Homozygosity for Met at the corresponding polymorphic site in humans predisposes exposed individuals to some forms of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and Rocky Mountain elk homozygous for PrP codon 1 32 Met were over-represented in both free-ranging and farm-raised CWD-affected elk when compared to unaffected control groups.
Environmental Sources of Prion Transmission in Mule Deer
TLDR
It is reported that CWD can be transmitted to susceptible animals indirectly, from environments contaminated by excreta or decomposed carcasses, and environmental persistence of infectious prions will complicate efforts to control CWD and perhaps other animal prion diseases.
Surveillance of chronic wasting disease in sika deer, Cervus nippon, from Tokachi district in Hokkaido.
TLDR
Results suggest that sika deer in the Tokachi district are genetically homogeneous, and are not infected with CWD.
Prion protein polymorphisms in white-tailed deer influence susceptibility to chronic wasting disease.
TLDR
Although the reduced susceptibility of deer with at least one copy of the Q95H or G96S allele is insufficient to serve as a genetic barrier, the presence of these alleles may modulate the impact of CWD on white-tailed deer populations.
Detection of CWD Prions in Urine and Saliva of Deer by Transgenic Mouse Bioassay
TLDR
The presence of infectious prions in the urine and saliva of deer with chronic wasting disease is reported and the detection of infectiousPrion protein in body fluids in other prion infections is portended.
Monoclonal Antibody F89/160.1.5 Defines a Conserved Epitope on the Ruminant Prion Protein
TLDR
Monoclonal antibody F89/160.1.5, which reacts with prion protein in tissues from sheep, cattle, mule deer, and elk with naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, will be useful in diagnostic and pathogenesis studies of the transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy in these ruminant species.
Insights into prion strains and neurotoxicity
TLDR
Prion strains are TSE isolates that, after inoculation into distinct hosts, cause disease with consistent characteristics, such as incubation period, distinct patterns of PrPSc distribution and spongiosis and relative severity of the spongiform changes in the brain.
Genetics of prions.
TLDR
Transgenetic studies argue that PrPSc acts as a template upon which PrPC is refolded into a nascent PrP sc molecule through a process facilitated by another protein.
EPIZOOTIOLOGY OF CHRONIC WASTING DISEASE IN FREE-RANGING CERVIDS IN COLORADO AND WYOMING
TLDR
CWD has been occurring in northeastern Colorado and southeastern Wyoming for >30 yr, and may be best represented as an epizootic with a protracted time-scale, based on prevalence, spatial distribution, and modeling.
...
...