Are Any of the Nebulæ Star-Systems?

  title={Are Any of the Nebul{\ae} Star-Systems?},
  author={Richard Anthony Proctor Proctor},
THIS may seem a bold question, for it is commonly believed that Sir William and Sir John Herschel—the Ajax and the Achilles of the astronomical host—have long since proved that many of the nebulae are star-systems. If we inquire, however, into what the Herschels have done and said, we shall find that not only have they not proved this point, but that the younger Herschel, at any rate, has expressed an opinion rather unfavourable than otherwise to the theory that the nebulae are galaxies in any…