Arctic sea-ice loss fuels extreme European snowfall

@article{Bailey2021ArcticSL,
  title={Arctic sea-ice loss fuels extreme European snowfall},
  author={Hannah L. Bailey and Alun Hubbard and Eric S. Klein and Kaisa-Riikka Mustonen and Pete D. Akers and Hannu Marttila and Jeffrey M. Welker},
  journal={Nature Geoscience},
  year={2021},
  volume={14},
  pages={283 - 288}
}
The loss of Arctic sea-ice has been implicated with severe cold and snowy mid-latitude winters. However, the mechanisms and a direct link remain elusive due to limited observational evidence. Here we present atmospheric water vapour isotope measurements from Arctic Finland during ‘the Beast from the East’—a severe anticyclonic outbreak that brought heavy snowfall and freezing across Europe in February 2018. We find that an anomalously warm Barents Sea, with a 60% ice-free surface, supplied up… 
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