Arctic sea ice in transformation: A review of recent observed changes and impacts on biology and human activity

  title={Arctic sea ice in transformation: A review of recent observed changes and impacts on biology and human activity},
  author={Walter N. Meier and Greta K. Hovelsrud and Bob van Oort and Jeffrey R. Key and Kit M. Kovacs and Christine Michel and Christian Haas and Mats Anders Granskog and Sebastian Gerland and Donald K. Perovich and Alexander Makshtas and James D. Reist},
  journal={Reviews of Geophysics},
Sea ice in the Arctic is one of the most rapidly changing components of the global climate system. Over the past few decades, summer areal extent has declined over 30%, and all months show statistically significant declining trends. New satellite missions and techniques have greatly expanded information on sea ice thickness, but many uncertainties remain in the satellite data and long-term records are sparse. However, thickness observations and other satellite-derived data indicate a 40… Expand
Recent advances in understanding the Arctic climate system state and change from a sea ice perspective: a review
Abstract. Sea ice is the central component and most sensitive indicator of the Arctic climate system. Both the depletion and areal decline of the Arctic sea ice cover, observed since the 1970s, haveExpand
New observations of Arctic sea ice from satellite radar altimetry
Satellite observations of Arctic sea ice have observed a decline in extent for all months since 1979. The decline is coincident with abrupt global and Arctic warming over the last 30 years. Over thisExpand
Chapter 3 – Arctic Sea Ice
The Arctic sea ice has been in decline during the last three decades, and the Arctic summer sea ice extent has never been as low as at present during the last 1450 years. Natural variability aloneExpand
The Arctic's sea ice cover: trends, variability, predictability, and comparisons to the Antarctic
  • M. Serreze, W. Meier
  • Medicine, Environmental Science
  • Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
  • 2019
There are downward linear trends in Arctic sea ice extent for all months, largest at the end of the melt season in September, and responses to changing atmospheric circulation patterns appear to play a strong role. Expand
The future of Arctic sea-ice biogeochemistry and ice-associated ecosystems
The Arctic sea-ice-scape is rapidly transforming. Increasing light penetration will initiate earlier seasonal primary production. This earlier growing season may be accompanied by an increase in iceExpand
Initializing sea ice thickness and quantifying uncertainty in seasonal forecasts of Arctic sea ice
Arctic sea ice has undergone a dramatic transformation in recent decades, including a substantial reduction in sea ice extent in summer months. Such changes, combined with relatively recentExpand
Consistency and discrepancy in the atmospheric response to Arctic sea-ice loss across climate models
The decline of Arctic sea ice is an integral part of anthropogenic climate change. Sea-ice loss is already having a significant impact on Arctic communities and ecosystems. Its role as a cause ofExpand
A 40-y record reveals gradual Antarctic sea ice increases followed by decreases at rates far exceeding the rates seen in the Arctic
  • C. L. Parkinson
  • Medicine, Environmental Science
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2019
The satellite record reveals that a gradual, decades-long overall increase in Antarctic sea ice extents reversed in 2014, with subsequent rates of decrease in 2014–2017 far exceeding the more widely publicized decay rates experienced in the Arctic. Expand
Arctic multiyear sea ice variability observed from satellites: a review
In comparison with seasonal sea ice (first-year ice, FY ice), multiyear (MY) sea ice is thicker and has more opportunity to survive through the summer melting seasons. Therefore, the variability ofExpand
Improving Met Office seasonal predictions of Arctic sea ice using assimilation of CryoSat-2 thickness
Abstract. Interest in seasonal predictions of Arctic sea ice has been increasing in recent years owing, primarily, to the sharp reduction in Arctic sea-ice cover observed over the last few decades, aExpand


Arctic sea-ice decline archived by multicentury annual-resolution record from crustose coralline algal proxy
The 646-y multisite record from the Canadian Arctic indicates that during the Little Ice Age, sea ice was extensive but highly variable on subdecadal time scales and coincided with an expansion of ice-dependent Thule/ Labrador Inuit sea mammal hunters in the region. Expand
Reconstructed changes in Arctic sea ice over the past 1,450 years
A network of high-resolution terrestrial proxies from the circum-Arctic region is used to reconstruct past extents of summer sea ice, and shows that both the duration and magnitude of the current decline in sea ice seem to be unprecedented for the past 1,450 years. Expand
History of sea ice in the Arctic
Abstract Arctic sea-ice extent and volume are declining rapidly. Several studies project that the Arctic Ocean may become seasonally ice-free by the year 2040 or even earlier. Putting this intoExpand
Observations and Predictions of Arctic Climatic Change: Potential Effects on Marine Mammals
Recent analyses have revealed trends over the past 20-30 years of decreasing sea ice extent in the Arctic Ocean coincident with warming trends. Such trends may be indicative of the polarExpand
Impacts of changing sea-ice conditions on Arctic marine mammals
Arctic sea ice has changed dramatically, especially during the last decade and continued declines in extent and thickness are expected for the decades to come. Some ice-associated marine mammals areExpand
The Future of Arctic Sea Ice
Arctic sea ice is a key indicator of the state of global climate because of both its sensitivity to warming and its role in amplifying climate change. Accelerated melting of the perennial sea iceExpand
Distribution and trends in Arctic sea ice age through spring 2011
[1] Analysis of a satellite-derived record of sea ice age for 1980 through March 2011 shows continued net decrease in multiyear ice coverage in the Arctic Ocean, with particularly extensive loss ofExpand
Impact of a shrinking Arctic ice cover on marine primary production
[1] Loss of Arctic sea ice has accelerated recently, culminating in a 2007 summer minimum ice extent that was 23% below the previous low. To quantify the impact of this unprecedented loss of ice onExpand
The thinning of Arctic sea ice, 1988-2003 : Have we passed a tipping point?
Recent observations of summer Arctic sea ice over the satellite era show that record or near-record lows for the ice extent occurred in the years 2002–05. To determine the physical processesExpand
Uncertainties in Arctic sea ice thickness and volume: new estimates and implications for trends
Sea ice volume has decreased in the last decades, evoked by changes in sea ice area and thickness. Estimates of sea ice area and thickness rely on a number of geophysical parameters which introduceExpand