Arctic gypsum endoliths : a biogeochemical characterization of a viable and active microbial community

@inproceedings{Ziolkowski2013ArcticGE,
  title={Arctic gypsum endoliths : a biogeochemical characterization of a viable and active microbial community},
  author={Lori A. Ziolkowski and Nadia C. S. Mykytczuk and Christopher R Omelon and H. Paul Johnson and Lyle G Whyte and Gregory F. Slater},
  year={2013}
}
Extreme environmental conditions such as those found in the polar regions on Earth are thought to test the limits of life. Microorganisms living in these environments often seek protection from environmental stresses such as high UV exposure, desiccation and rapid temperature fluctuations, with one protective habitat found within rocks. Such endolithic microbial communities, which often consist of bacteria, fungi, algae and lichens, are small-scale ecosystems comprised of both producers and… 

Figures from this paper

Microbial Diversity of Impact-Generated Habitats.
TLDR
The results of this study show that microbial diversity is tied to the amount of porosity in the target substrate (as a function of shock metamorphism), resulting in the formation of distinct microbial populations.
Adaptation strategies of endolithic chlorophototrophs to survive the hyperarid and extreme solar radiation environment of the Atacama Desert
The Atacama Desert, northern Chile, is one of the driest deserts on Earth and, as such, a natural laboratory to explore the limits of life and the strategies evolved by microorganisms to adapt to
Microbial Hotspots in Lithic Microhabitats Inferred from DNA Fractionation and Metagenomics in the Atacama Desert
TLDR
The results show that hypolith colonized rocks are microbial hotspots in the desert environment, but the data do not support such a conclusion for gypsum crust and salt rock environments, because only limited microbial activity could be observed.
Comparing rock‐inhabiting microbial communities in different rock types from a high arctic polar desert
TLDR
It is confirmed that rocks in cold environments act as reservoirs of diverse bacteria and fungi, which may improve the understanding of lithic microbial ecology in the cold desert.
Variability in carbon uptake and (re)cycling in Antarctic cryptoendolithic microbial ecosystems demonstrated through radiocarbon analysis of organic biomarkers
TLDR
Organic biomarker and radiocarbon analysis was used to better constrain ages and carbon sources of cryptoendoliths in University Valley and Farnell Valley and proposed that Dry Valley cryptoendolithic microbial communities are faster growing than previously estimated.
Depth profiles of microbial colonization in sandstones
TLDR
This feature may imply stronger impact of stone decay induced by endolithic growth of bryophytes than hitherto observed and contribute to an increase in pore size by active penetration of the clastic material, even though colonization of the surface by mosses may not be necessarily obvious.
Cold-Adapted Yeasts in Arctic Habitats
TLDR
Interestingly, the dominant yeasts in the Arctic are also of basidiomycetous affinity and belong to the same genera that occur frequently in the Antarctic soils and polar offshore sea waters.
Characterization of Microbial Communities Hosted in Quartzofeldspathic and Serpentinite Lithologies in Jeffrey Mine, Canada.
TLDR
This study has demonstrated the presence of a viable lithic microbial community within two rock types in the Jeffrey Mine and provided evidence that lithologies associated with serpentine deposits and proximal hydrated minerals have the ability to support diverse prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial colonization.
Chapter 3 Cold-Adapted Yeasts in Arctic Habitats
TLDR
Interestingly, the dominant yeasts in the Arctic are also of basidiomycetous affinity and belong to the same genera that occur frequently in the Antarctic soils and polar offshore sea waters.
Gypsum-hosted endolithic communities of the Lake St. Martin impact structure, Manitoba, Canada: spectroscopic detectability and implications for Mars
Abstract There is increasing evidence that Mars may have once been a habitable environment. Gypsum is targeted in the search for Martian biosignatures because it can host extensive cryptoendolithic
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 89 REFERENCES
Endolithic Microbial Communities in Polar Desert Habitats
TLDR
Novel microscopy techniques such as SEM-BSE reveal much information about the physiological state of these microorganisms in situ, and show how under specific conditions, microbe-mineral interactions produce unique biosignatures of interest to studies in astrobiology.
A novel Antarctic microbial endolithic community within gypsum crusts.
TLDR
A novel endolithic microbial habitat is described from a climatically extreme site at Two Step Cliffs, Alexander Island, Antarctic Peninsula to provide protection from desiccation, rapid temperature variation and UV radiation flux while allowing penetration of photosynthetically active radiation for utilization by phototrophs.
Phylogenetic Composition of Rocky Mountain Endolithic Microbial Ecosystems
TLDR
The results indicate that endolithic ecosystems are seeded from a select, global metacommunity and form true ecological communities that are among the simplest microbial ecosystems known.
Inorganic Species Distribution and Microbial Diversity within High Arctic Cryptoendolithic Habitats
TLDR
The results suggest that the activity of the dominant microorganisms controls the pH of the surrounding environment, which in turn dictates rates of weathering or the possibility for surface crust formation, both ultimately deciding the structure of microbial diversity for each cryptoendolithic habitat.
Molecular Characterization of an Endolithic Microbial Community in Dolomite Rock in the Central Alps (Switzerland)
TLDR
The bacterial diversity in this endolithic habitat, especially of chemotrophic, nonpigmented organisms, is considerable and that Archaea are present as well.
Endolithic microbial ecosystems.
TLDR
Comparison of endolithic communities supports the principle that patterns of microbial diversity are governed by similar principles observed in macroecological systems.
Does iron inhibit cryptoendolithic microbial communities?
TLDR
Inorganic nutrients such as nitrate, ammonia, and phosphate are often limiting factors, so their effects on photosynthetic carbon-14 bicarbonate incorporation were investigated and may add to the understanding of biogeochemical interactions within this unique microbial community.
Environmental controls on microbial colonization of high Arctic cryptoendolithic habitats
TLDR
Great diversity of microorganisms at this Arctic location compared to similar habitats in the Antarctic Dry Valleys is explained by warmer temperatures during summer months that lead to longer periods for both active and ideal metabolic activities as well as abundant moisture in the form of liquid water.
Ultrastructure and geochemistry of endolithic microorganisms in limestone of the Niagara Escarpment
Endolithic microbial communities dominated by photosynthetic cyanobacteria occur at a depth of 0.5 – 3.0 mm inside dolomitic limestone that forms the vertical cliffs of the Niagara Escarpment in
Microbial Diversity of Cryptoendolithic Communities from the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica
TLDR
The microbial biodiversity of selected cryptoendolithic communities is surveyed by analyzing clone libraries of rRNA genes amplified from environmental DNA in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica.
...
...