Archaeopteris is the earliest known modern tree

  title={Archaeopteris is the earliest known modern tree},
  author={Brigitte Meyer-Berthaud and Stephen E. Scheckler and Jobst Wendt},
Archaeopteris is an extinct plant which is of botanical interest for two reasons. It was the main component of the earliest forests until its extinction around the Devonian/Carboniferous boundary, and phylogenetically, it is the free-sporing taxon that shares the most characteristics with the seed plants. Here we describe the largest group of anatomically preserved Archaeopteris remains ever found, from the Famennian marine beds of south-eastern Morocco, and provide the first evidence that, in… 
The Origin and Early Evolution of Roots1
Remarkably well-preserved fossils prove that mycorrhizal symbionts were diverse in simple rhizoid-based systems and the broader impact of root evolution on the geochemical carbon cycle is a developing area and one in which the interests of the plant physiologist intersect with those of the geochemist.
Giant cladoxylopsid trees resolve the enigma of the Earth’s earliest forest stumps at Gilboa
The evolution of trees of modern size growing together in forests fundamentally changed terrestrial ecosystems. The oldest trees are often thought to be of latest Devonian age (about 380–360 Myr old)
The land plant cover in the Devonian: a reassessment of the evolution of the tree habit
Abstract This paper reviews information on the Devonian trees that evolved in the euphyllophyte clade with special focus on the Middle Devonian Pseudosporochnales. The morphology of
Roots: evolutionary origins and biogeochemical significance.
Finer structures involved in the uptake of nutrients of low diffusivity in soil evolved at least 400 million years ago as arbuscular mycorrhizas or as evaginations of "roots" ("root hairs").
The Evolution of Angiosperm Trees: From Palaeobotany to Genomics
Genomic resources for angiosperm trees are developing rapidly and this, coupled with the huge variation in woody habit, make angiosperms a highly promising comparative system for understanding wood evolution at the molecular level.
Unique growth strategy in the Earth’s first trees revealed in silicified fossil trunks from China
This work demonstrates that trunk expansion is associated with a cylindrical zone of diffuse secondary growth within ground and cortical parenchyma and with production of a large amount of wood containing both rays and growth increments concentrically around individual xylem strands by normal cambia.
How early ferns became trees
  • J. Galtier, F. Hueber
  • Biology, Medicine
    Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences
  • 2001
A new anatomically preserved fern, discovered from the basalmost Carboniferous of Australia, shows a unique combination of very primitive anatomical characters (solid centrarch cauline protostele)
The development of Archaeopteris: new evolutionary characters from the structural analysis of an Early Famennian trunk from southeast Morocco.
Type-H traces suggest that Archaeopteris trees had some potential for formation of adventitious roots or shoots in response to environmental factors, such as partial burial by overbank sedimentation.
The origin of herbivory on land: Initial patterns of plant tissue consumption by arthropods
The early fossil record of terrestrial arthropod herbivory consists of two pulses, which provide a context for three emerging questions, and provides primary ecological data that remain unaddressed by the body‐fossil record alone.
A new Late Devonian flora from Sonid Zuoqi, Inner Mongolia, northeastern China
The Silurian and Devonian plant fossil record is the basis for our understanding of the early evolution of land plants, yet our appreciation of early global phytogeographic evolution has been


Ontogeny of progymnosperms. II. Shoots of Upper Devonian Archaeopteridales
A consistent pattern of variation of the primary xylem has been documented for most levels of the shoot system of Archaeopteris and for smaller pieces of Callixylon (Archaeopteridales). In general,
It is suggested that Actinopodium, Svalbardia and Siderella are related closely to Archaeopteris and that this group of genera shows evolutionary stages in webbing of leaves and planation of branch systems.
A Reevaluation of Seed Plant Phylogeny
The results support the placement of the cycads as the sister group of a monophyletic group that includes several fossil «seed ferns» as well as extant Ginkgo, conifers, gnetopsids, and angiosperms.
Archaeopteris roemeriana (Göppert) sensu Stockmans, 1948 from the Upper Famennian of Belgium : anatomy and leaf polymorphism
The anatomy of the latéral system of Archaeropteris roemeriana is described based on specimens in the Stockmans collection and the use of leaf size for spécifie delimination in Archaeopteris is discussed with reference to the leaf size polymorphism inferred for A.roemeriana.
An architectural analysis of Archaeopteris, a fossil tree with pseudomonopodial and opportunistic adventitious growth
It is demonstrated that Archaeopteris is totally lacking extant architectural analogues, and the methodology employed in the architectural analysis of such fossil plants is introduced.
First record of a large Callixylon trunk from the late Devonian of Gondwana
A 5 m long permineralized trunk from the Upper Kellwasser member of southern Morocco represents the first record of a large trunk of an identifiable species of Callixylon , C. erianum , from
The Vascular Cambium: Development and Structure
The vascular cambium consists of two cell types, fusiform and ray cell initials and these cells divide both anticlinally and periclinally, and the manifold consequences of these two modes of cambial cell division are thoroughly explored and analyzed.
Age and depositional environment of upper devonian (early Frasnian to early famennian) black shales and limestones (Kellwasser facies) in the eastern Anti-Atlas, Morocco
SummaryThe so-called Kellwasser facies consists of black bituminous limestones and shales which were deposited on pelagic platforms and in adjacent shallow basins. In contrast to the well-known
Wood - The Internal Optimization of Trees
Summary Trees are characterized by an optimum adaptation of their inner architecture to the loads and stresses which occur. 1. The wood fibres in the tree rings are aligned with the force flow. The
Wood Variation: Its Causes and Control
The author examines the effect of Provenance Variation and Exotic Plantations on Wood Properties in Plantation-Grown Trees, as well as wood properties associated with Poor Tree Form and Reaction Wood, and the literature related to Wood Variation.