Arabidopsis phytochelatin synthase 1, but not phytochelatin synthesis, functions in extracellular defense against multiple fungal pathogens

  title={Arabidopsis phytochelatin synthase 1, but not phytochelatin synthesis, functions in extracellular defense against multiple fungal pathogens},
  author={Kian H{\'e}maty and Melisa Lim and Candice Cherk and Paweł Bednarek and Mariola Piślewska‐Bednarek and Clara S{\'a}nchez-Rodr{\'i}guez and Monica Stein and Ren{\'e} Fuchs and Christine Klapprodt and Volker Lipka and Antonio Molina and Erwin Grill and Paul Schulze-Lefert and Shauna C Somerville},
Phytochelatin synthase (PCS) is a key component of heavy metal detoxification in plants. PCS catalyzes both the synthesis of the peptide phytochelatin from glutathione as well as the degradation of glutathione conjugates via peptidase activity. Here, we describe a hitherto uncharacterized role for PCS in disease resistance against plant pathogenic fungi. The pen4 mutant, which is allelic to cadmium insensitive 1 (cad1/pcs1) mutants, was recovered from a screen for Arabidopsis mutants with… Expand
3 Citations
De novo indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate biosynthesis, and not long-distance transport, contributes to defence of Arabidopsis against powdery mildew.
It is concluded that epidermal de novo synthesis of indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate contributes to CYP81F2-mediated broad-spectrum antifungal resistance and that adapted powdery mildews may target this process. Expand
De novo indol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate biosynthesis, and not long-distance transport, contributes to defence of Arabidopsis against powdery mildew
Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that affects a wide range of plants and reduces crop yield worldwide. As obligate biotrophs, powdery mildew fungi manipulate living host cells to suppress defenceExpand
bak1-5 mutation uncouples tryptophan-dependent and independent postinvasive immune pathways triggered in Arabidopsis by multiple fungal pathogens
CYP71A12 and CYP71A13 are critical for Arabidopsis’ postinvasive resistance toward both the necrotrophic Alternaria brassicicola and the adapted hemibiotrophic C. higginsianum fungi, and the disruption of intact pattern recognition receptor complex caused by bak1–5 mutation significantly reduced postin invasive resistance. Expand


The Arabidopsis thaliana Knockout Mutant for Phytochelatin Synthase1 (cad1-3) Is Defective in Callose Deposition, Bacterial Pathogen Defense and Auxin Content, But Shows an Increased Stem Lignification
The enzyme phytochelatin synthase (PCS) has long been studied with regard to its role in metal(loid) detoxification in several organisms, i.e., plants, yeasts, and nematodes. It is in fact widelyExpand
Tolerance to toxic metals by a gene family of phytochelatin synthases from plants and yeast
Data demonstrate that PCS genes encode phytochelatin synthases and mediate metal detoxification in eukaryotes and the homologs of this new gene family from Arabidopsis thaliana, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and interestingly also Caenorhabditis elegans. Expand
Expression of Caenorhabditis elegans PCS in the AtPCS1-deficient Arabidopsis thaliana cad1-3 mutant separates the metal tolerance and non-host resistance functions of phytochelatin synthases.
It is confirmed that plants lacking the functional gene develop a strong cell death phenotype when inoculated with the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans and found that the C. elegans gene rescues phytochelatin synthesis and cadmium tolerance, but not the defect in non-host resistance, which strongly suggests that the second enzymatic function of AtPCS1, which remains to be defined in detail, is underlying the plant immunity function. Expand
Cytosolic Action of Phytochelatin Synthase1[W][OA]
Analysis of a triple mutant deficient in both Arabidopsis PCS and vacuolar γ-glutamyl transpeptidase GGT4 is consistent with earlier observations of an efficient sequestration of GS conjugates into the vacuole and the requirement of GGT3 for their turnover, and supports a cytosolic action of PCS. Expand
Phytochelatin synthase: of a protease a peptide polymerase made.
  • P. A. Rea
  • Biology, Medicine
  • Physiologia plantarum
  • 2012
The reasoning and experiments behind the conclusion that PC synthases are novel papain-like Cys protease superfamily members are presented and the question of the common need or needs met by PC synthase and their homologs is discussed. Expand
The Function of Glucosinolates and Related Metabolites in Plant Innate Immunity
Experimental evidence indicate that some molecules released during pathogen-triggered glucosinolate metabolism may activate evolutionarily conserved immune responses, possibly through affecting glutathione redox state in the infected cell. Expand
Glutathione S-Transferases in the Biosynthesis of Sulfur-Containing Secondary Metabolites in Brassicaceae Plants
Studies on the glucosinolate and phytoalexin biosynthetic pathways in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have shown that glutathione donates the sulfur atoms that are present in these compounds, and this further suggests that specialized glutathion S-transferases (GSTs) are involved in the biosynthesis of glucos inolates and sulfur-containing phy toalexins. Expand
Biosynthesis of cabbage phytoalexins from indole glucosinolate
The identification of these biosynthetic enzymes and the heterologous reconstitution of the indole–sulfur phy toalexin pathway sheds light on an important pathway in an edible plant and opens the door to using metabolic engineering to systematically quantify the impact of cruciferous phytoalexins on plant disease resistance and human health. Expand
A Glucosinolate Metabolism Pathway in Living Plant Cells Mediates Broad-Spectrum Antifungal Defense
It is proposed that reiterated enzymatic cycles, controlling the generation of toxic molecules and their detoxification, enable the recruitment of glucosinolates in defense responses. Expand
Glutathione Transferase U13 Functions in Pathogen-Triggered Glucosinolate Metabolism1
It is postulated that GSTU13 connects GSH with the pathogen-triggered PEN2 pathway for IG metabolism to deliver metabolites that may have numerous functions in the innate immune system of Arabidopsis. Expand