Arabic

@article{Thelwall1990Arabic,
  title={Arabic},
  author={Robin Thelwall and Mohammed Akram A.M. Sa‘Adeddin},
  journal={Journal of the International Phonetic Association},
  year={1990},
  volume={20},
  pages={37 - 39}
}
It seems widely accepted that there are two dominant (prestigeful) dialect centers of gravity for Spoken Arabic: first, that of Al-Shaam (greater Syria, from the Mediterranean coast to the eastern edge of the Fertile Crescent) and, second, Egypt (focussed on Al-Azhar Mosque and University in Cairo). This is not to disregard the status of the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq or other areas as the sources of models, but the matter remains to be adequately investigated. 

References

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The phonetics of Arabic

The pages below are extracts from a book that is being prepared for publication. As a result, not every category of sound is presented with the same detail, while illustrations, exercises, etc. have

Phonetik und Phonologie des modernen Hocharabisch

Arabic Phonology: An Acoustical and Physiological Investigation

The ' 5 Yaa ? ' . which is here pronounced / 5 V ' a voiced dental fricative with tongue root retraction and concomitant pharyngealization and velarization '

  • Arabic Phonology : An Acoustical and Physiological Investigation
  • 1970