Arabian Sea tropical cyclones intensified by emissions of black carbon and other aerosols

  title={Arabian Sea tropical cyclones intensified by emissions of black carbon and other aerosols},
  author={Amato T. Evan and James P. Kossin and Chul E. Chung and Veerabhadran Ramanathan},
Throughout the year, average sea surface temperatures in the Arabian Sea are warm enough to support the development of tropical cyclones, but the atmospheric monsoon circulation and associated strong vertical wind shear limits cyclone development and intensification, only permitting a pre-monsoon and post-monsoon period for cyclogenesis. Thus a recent increase in the intensity of tropical cyclones over the northern Indian Ocean is thought to be related to the weakening of the climatological… 
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It is shown that increased emissions of black carbon, sulphates and other aerosols have altered the atmospheric circulation in the pre-monsoon season over the Arabian Sea, leading to decreased vertical wind shear.
Intensified Arabian Sea tropical storms ARISING FROM
Tropical cyclones over the Arabian Sea in the pre-monsoon season (May–June) have intensified since 1997 (ref. 1, Fig. 1a) owing to significant reductions in storm-ambient vertical wind shear (VWS) in
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