Approach and Avoidance Motivation

  title={Approach and Avoidance Motivation},
  author={A. Elliot and M. Covington},
  journal={Educational Psychology Review},
In this article, we introduce this special issue by establishing a conceptual foundation for the distinction between approach and avoidance motivation. We do so primarily by explicating several reasons why the approach–avoidance distinction should be viewed as fundamental and basic to the study of human behavior. In addition, we compare and contrast the “approach–avoidance” designation with other designations that have been used in the motivational literature to cover the same or similar… Expand
Avoidance and Approach Motivation: A Brief History
The study of motivation has been of interest to researchers in all fields who are interested in examining the underlying causes of behavior. Approach and avoidance motivation, in particular, has beenExpand
The Hierarchical Model of Approach-Avoidance Motivation
Approach motivation is the energization of behavior by, or the direction of behavior toward, positive stimuli (objects, events, possibilities), whereas avoidance motivation is the energization ofExpand
Approach and Avoidance Motivation: Issues and Advances
One of the most fundamental, widely embraced concepts in the study of emotion is that of approach and avoidance motivation. Many eminent theorists have argued that emotional stimuli elicit twoExpand
Core self-evaluations (CSE) represent a new personality construct that, despite an accumulation of evidence regarding its predictive validity, provokes debate regarding the fundamental approach orExpand
Thriving and Surviving: Approach and Avoidance Motivation and Lateralization
Two core motivational systems have been conceptualized as underlying emotion and behavior. The approach system drives the organism toward stimuli or events in the environment, and the avoidanceExpand
What is Approach Motivation?
We discuss some research that has examined approach motivational urges and how this research clarifies the definition of approach motivation. Our research and that of others have raised doubts aboutExpand
Avoidance Motivation and Emotion : Convergence and Divergence − Approach
In this concluding piece, we identify and discuss various aspects of convergence and, to a lesser degree, divergence in the ideas expressed in the contributions to this special section. TheseExpand
Future Tests of Motivated Distance Perception From Multiple Perspectives
In response to comments, I repeat and further support the proposal that valence and arousal cannot serve as independent factors of motivated distance perception, but can be incorporated into theExpand
Approach–Avoidance Motivation and Emotion: Convergence and Divergence
In this concluding piece, we identify and discuss various aspects of convergence and, to a lesser degree, divergence in the ideas expressed in the contributions to this special section. TheseExpand
Approach and avoidance in Gray's, Higgins', and Elliot's perspectives: A theoretical comparison and integration of approach-avoidance in motivated behavior
Abstract This article first reviews the main theoretical propositions of Gray's Reinforcer Sensitivity Theory (RST), Higgins' Regulatory Focus Theory (RFT), and Elliot's Achievement Goal TheoryExpand


Approach and avoidance motivation and achievement goals
Achievement goal researchers and theorists have relied primarily on the distinction between performance goals and mastery goals in differentiating competence-based strivings. In this article, anExpand
Approach and avoidance strength during goal attainment: regulatory focus and the "goal looms larger" effect.
Three studies tested the hypothesis that regulatory focus, both as a chronic person variable and as a manipulated situational variable, differentially affects the strength of participants' approachExpand
Psychological Types
In the following pages I shall attempt a general description of the types, and my first concern must be with the two general types I have termed introverted and extraverted. But, in addition, I shallExpand
A hierarchical model of approach and avoidance achievement motivation was proposed and tested in a college classroom. Mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals were assessed andExpand
Human Motivation
In his Preface the author' says that he started out to review all the more important theories upon the topics ordinarily discussed under human motivation but soon found himself more and more limitedExpand
The two general activation systems of affect: Structural findings, evolutionary considerations, and psychobiological evidence
D. Watson and A. Tellegen (1985) proposed a consensual structure of affect based on J. A. Russell's (1980) circumplex. The authors' review of the literature indicates that this 2-factor modelExpand
Neurobiology of the structure of personality: dopamine, facilitation of incentive motivation, and extraversion.
The animal evidence suggests that there are three neurodevelopmental sources of individual differences in dopamine: genetic, "experiences-expectant," and "experience-dependent." Individual differences in serotonin promote variation in the heterosynaptic plasticity that enhances the connection between incentive context and incentive motivation and behavior. Expand
Consequences of Automatic Evaluation: Immediate Behavioral Predispositions to Approach or Avoid the Stimulus
Research on automatic attitude activation has documented a pervasive tendency to nonconsciously classify most if not all incoming stimuli as either good or bad. Two experiments tested a functionalExpand
Extraversion and neuroticism in rats
Abstract A series of animal experiments is described, the aim of which was to test the hypothesis that the personality dimensions of extraversion-introversion and neuroticism-stability could beExpand
Emotion, attention, and the startle reflex.
The startle response (an aversive reflex) is enhanced during a fear state and is diminished in a pleasant emotional context and the effect is found when affects are prompted by pictures or memory images, changes appropriately with aversive conditioning, and may be dependent on right-hemisphere processing. Expand