Applied Biotechnology to Combat Late Blight in Potato Caused by Phytophthora Infestans

  title={Applied Biotechnology to Combat Late Blight in Potato Caused by Phytophthora Infestans},
  author={Anton J. Haverkort and Paul C. Struik and R. Visser and Evert Jacobsen},
  journal={Potato Research},
Potato is an important crop, grown worldwide. It suffers from many pests and diseases among which late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is the worst. The disease is still causing major damage in many potato production areas and control is only possible by applying fungicides frequently. The knowledge on the molecular biology and genetics of the interaction between the plant and the oomycete is developing rapidly. These are relevant fields of study, currently dominated by… 
Late blight resistance genes in potato breeding
Main conclusion Using late blight resistance genes targeting conservative effectors of Phytophthora infestans and the constructing gene pyramids may lead to durable, broad-spectrum resistance, which
Engineering durable late blight resistance to protect solanaceous plants
Phytophthora infestans has rapidly overcome genetic resistances introduced into cultivated potato from wild species and provides the rationale for developing artificial resistance genes to create durable resistance to late blight disease.
An increasing severity of late blight in many potato growing areas, a shift in pathogen population toward increased specific virulence and an increasing tolerance to the most effective late blight specific fungicides suggests a need to develop an appropriate disease management strategy based on information technology.
Late blight of potato and its management through the application of different fungicides and organic amendments: a review
The significance of late blight of potato and controlling strategies adopted for minimizing yield losses incurred by this disease by the application of synthetic fungicides and different organic amendments are reviewed.
Can Physiology Help Us to Combat Late Blight in Potato?
It is concluded that crop physiology can do little to reliably reduce the susceptibility to late blight, and breeding for resistance remains the best option.
Fungal, Oomycete, and Plasmodiophorid Diseases of Potato
This chapter discusses the major potato diseases worldwide: late blight, early blight, wart, and powdery scab. Late blight, caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans, continues to be the main
Management of Late Blight of Potato
Potato ( Solanum tuberosum L.) is the most important crop and Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary is the oomycete, which was responsible for infamous Irish potato famine during 1843–45 and it
Review article: Complexity of late blight resistance in potato and its potential in cultivar improvement
The task to produce genotypes with resistance is challenged also by the recent occurrence of rapidly changing genotypes of the pathogen which are able to reproduce also sexually nowadays worldwide.
Functional genomics of Phytophthora infestans effectors and Solanum resistance genes
This thesis employs effectoromics, i.e. the use of effectors (pathogenic secreted protein) to probe corresponding R gene(s) in a host plant and sort out their functional redundancy and specificity, to provide a technical solution for long-term disease management of late blight.
Understanding and exploiting late blight resistance in the age of effectors.
Genome-wide catalogs of P. infestans effectors are available, enabling effectoromics approaches that accelerate R gene cloning and specificity profiling and monitoring effector allelic diversity in pathogen populations can assist in R gene deployment in agriculture.


Societal Costs of Late Blight in Potato and Prospects of Durable Resistance Through Cisgenic Modification
A case arguing for an updating and refinement of these rules in order to place cisgenic GM-crops in another class of GM-plants as has been done in the past with (induced) mutation breeding and the use of protoplast fusion between crossable species is presented.
Effector Genomics Accelerates Discovery and Functional Profiling of Potato Disease Resistance and Phytophthora Infestans Avirulence Genes
The findings indicate that effector genomics enables discovery and functional profiling of late blight R genes and Avr genes at an unprecedented rate and promises to accelerate the engineering ofLate blight resistant potato varieties.
Cisgenesis Does Not Solve the Late Blight Problem of Organic Potato Production: Alternative Breeding Strategies
The Dutch organic sector is now aiming at increasing the traditional breeding activities including the participation of farmer-breeders in close cooperation with the formal breeding companies and marker assisted breeding to achieve adequate pyramiding of different, new sources of resistance.
A transformation method for obtaining marker-free plants of a cross-pollinating and vegetatively propagated crop
This system does not require genetic segregation or site-specific DNA-deletion systems to remove marker genes, and may provide a reliable and efficient tool for generating transgenic plants for commercial use, especially in vegetatively propagated species like potato and cassava.
Trafficking arms: oomycete effectors enter host plant cells.
Cisgenesis strongly improves introgression breeding and induced translocation breeding of plants.
RXLR effector reservoir in two Phytophthora species is dominated by a single rapidly evolving superfamily with more than 700 members
A single superfamily is identified that includes all experimentally identified oomycete effector and avirulence genes, and its rapid pace of evolution is consistent with a role for Avh proteins in interaction with plant hosts.
An Ethical Assessment of Cisgenesis in Breeding Late Blight Resistant Potato
It is argued that there is a significant ethical difference between transgenesis and cisgenesis, but that nevertheless any form of genetic modification should be integrated in a broader normative understanding of agriculture in order to work towards a more sustainable agriculture.
Moving targets: rapid evolution of oomycete effectors.