In the past few decades, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have found themselves being adopted into a wide variety of fields and disciplines. Recently there has been an increased interest in the use of MEMS for surgical applications. MEMS technology has the potential to not only improve the functionality of existing surgical devices, but also add new capabilities, which allow surgeons to develop new techniques and perform entirely new procedures. MEMS can improve surgical outcomes, lower risk, and help control costs by providing the surgeon with real-time feedback on the operation. This paper discusses the challenges MEMS face in the medical device market along with current applications and future directions for the technology.