Application of urinary and fecal steroid measurements for monitoring ovarian function and pregnancy in the bonobo (Pan paniscus) and evaluation of perineal swelling patterns in relation to endocrine events.

@article{Heistermann1996ApplicationOU,
  title={Application of urinary and fecal steroid measurements for monitoring ovarian function and pregnancy in the bonobo (Pan paniscus) and evaluation of perineal swelling patterns in relation to endocrine events.},
  author={Michael Heistermann and Ulrike M{\"o}hle and Hilde Vervaecke and Linda van Elsacker and J. Keith Hodges},
  journal={Biology of reproduction},
  year={1996},
  volume={55 4},
  pages={844-53}
}
Estrone conjugates (E1C), pregnanediol glucuronide (PdG), and estriol (E3) in urine, and immunoreactive E1C, E3, pregnanediol (Pd), and progesterone (P4) in feces were determined along with records of perineal sex skin swelling throughout 7 nonconception cycles and 3 full-term pregnancies of 4 adult female bonobos (Pan paniscus). A typical preovulatory urinary E1C surge and postovulatory increase in urinary PdG were seen during the menstrual cycles. Fecal progestin levels were significantly… CONTINUE READING

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