The lose of juvenility elicits adventitious rooting recalcitrance in apple rootstocks
The paper disk method of screening several plant growth regulators was evaluated. Leaf explants ofVigna unguiculata (L) Walp. were placed on solidified Murashige and Skoog's minimal organics medium containing 0.5 mg/l nicotinic acid. Hormones were tested, singly and in combinations, on paper disks in large Petri plates (150×20 mm). Hormones tested were 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), 2,4,5-T (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid), IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), IBA (indole-3-butyric acid), picloram (4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropicolinic acid), dicamba (3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid), BA (6-benzyladenine), 2iP (2-isopentenyl adenine), and kinetin [6-(furfurylamino)-purine]. Root formation was stimulated by IAA and IBA; dicamba, picloram, 2,4-D, and 2,4,5-T stimulated callus formation. All cytokinins tested suppressed root formation. Dicamba in combination with either 2iP or kinetin induced the greatest callus formation. Root formation was optimal with kinetin and either IAA or IBA. The disk method provided a rapid, nonquantitative evaluation of callus and root formation from leaf disks.