Estimation of flood environmental effects using flood zone mapping techniques in Halilrood Kerman, Iran
Hydrologic simulation employing computer models has advanced rapidly and computerized models have become essential tools for understanding human influences on river flows and designing ecologically sustainable water management approaches. The HEC-HMS is a reliable model developed by the US Army Corps of Engineers that could be used for many hydrological simulations. This model is not calibrated and validated for Sri Lankan watersheds and need reliable data inputs to check the suitability of the model for the study location and purpose. Therefore, this study employed three different approaches to calibrate and validate the HEC-HMS 3.4 model to Attanagalu Oya (River) catchment and generate long term flow data for the Oya and the tributaries. Twenty year daily rainfall data from five rain gauging stations scattered within the Attanagalu Oya catchment and monthly evaporation data for the same years for the agro meteorological station Henarathgoda together with daily flow data at Dunamale from 2005 to 2010 were used in the study. GIS layers that were needed as input data for the flow simulation were prepared using Arc GIS 9.2 and used in the HEC-HMS 3.4 calibration of the Dunamale sub catchment using daily flow data from 2005 to 2007. The model was calibrated adjusting three different methods. The model parameters were changed and the model calibration was performed separately for the three selected methods, the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number loss method, the deficit constant loss method (the Snyder unit hydrograph method and the Clark unit hydrograph method) in order to determine the most suitable simulation method to the study catchment. The calibrated model was validated with a new set of rainfall and flow data (2008e2010). The flows simulated from each methods were tested statistically employing the coefficient of performance, the relative error and the residual method. The Snyder unit hydrograph method simulates flows more reliably than the Clark unit hydrograph method. As the loss method, the SCS Curve Number method does not perform well. 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.