Application of retinol to human skin in vivo induces epidermal hyperplasia and cellular retinoid binding proteins characteristic of retinoic acid but without measurable retinoic acid levels or irritation.


We investigated the clinical, histologic, and molecular responses of normal human skin to all-trans-retinol (ROL) application, compared to those induced by topical all-trans-retinoic acid (RA), and measured ROL-derived metabolites. Up to 1.6% ROL, 0.025% RA in vehicle (70% ethanol/30% propylene glycol), or vehicle alone were applied in a double-blind… (More)


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