There is evidence that the cholinergic system positively modulates growth hormone (GH) secretion. In the present study, we observed the effects of cholinergic enhancement by pyridostigmine (PD), a cholinesterases inhibitor, on GH release in both normal (n = 13) and GH deficient children and adolescents (n = 10). Responses of GH to insulin hypoglycemia (Ins) were also observed. In the normal subjects, PD-induced serum GH peak level was significantly higher than that induced by Ins (P less than 0.01), while the GH level in the patients with pituitary dwarfism showed no increase in both tests. This study indicates that PD test may be considered a sensitive dynamic test in evaluating pituitary function of GH secretion in children and adolescents.