Application of pharmacogenomics to investigate adverse drug reactions to the disease-modifying treatments for multiple sclerosis: a case–control study protocol for dimethyl fumarate-induced lymphopenia

  title={Application of pharmacogenomics to investigate adverse drug reactions to the disease-modifying treatments for multiple sclerosis: a case–control study protocol for dimethyl fumarate-induced lymphopenia},
  author={Kaarina Kowalec and Elaine Kingwell and Robert Carruthers and Ruth Ann Marrie and Sasha Bernatsky and Anthony L. Traboulsee and Colin J. D. Ross and Bruce C. Carleton and Helen Tremlett},
  journal={BMJ Open},
Introduction Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are a global public health issue. The potential for pharmacogenomic biomarkers has been demonstrated in several therapeutical areas, including HIV infection and oncology. Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is a licensed disease-modifying therapy for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). The use of DMF in MS has been associated with a severe reduction in lymphocyte counts and reports of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Here, we outline the protocol… 
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