Application of embryonic equivalents in male-to-female sex reassignment surgery

  title={Application of embryonic equivalents in male-to-female sex reassignment surgery},
  author={Balakrishnan Margabandu Thalaivirithan and Maithreyi Sethu and Dinesh Karuvakkurichi Ramachandran and Mahadevan Kandasamy and Jaganmohan Janardhanam},
  journal={Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery : Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India},
  pages={155 - 166}
Introduction: The feeling of incongruence between phenotypic sex and psychological recognition of self-gender is termed gender dysphoria. Transsexualism is the most extreme form of this disorder. Aims and Objectives: The aims and objectives of the study are to evaluate the esthetic and functional outcome of embryonic equivalents-based male-to-female sex reassignment surgery in transwomen using the institutional scoring system. Materials and Methods: Thirty transwomen who had undergone male-to… 
4 Citations
Retrospective Study of Prosthetic Augmentation Mammoplasty in Transwomen
To get the best cosmetic outcomes and lasting results the Prosthetic Augmentation Mammoplasty in transwomen has to be made a more reasoning and scientific procedure rather than an emotional and irrational procedure.
Complications and Patient-reported Outcomes in Transfemale Vaginoplasty: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Transfemale vaginoplasty is a key component of the comprehensive surgical treatment of transfemale patients with gender dysphoria and over time, there will see an increased demand for these procedures, so adequate surgical training, clinical/surgical experience, and research outcomes are required.
Sexual health after vaginoplasty: A systematic review
Vaginoplasty is a gender‐affirming procedure for transgender and gender diverse (TGD) patients who experience gender incongruence. This procedure reduces mental health concerns and enhances patients’


Gender Identity Disorder: General Overview and Surgical Treatment for Vaginoplasty in Male-to-Female Transsexuals
The penile-scrotal skin flap technique is considered the state of the art for vaginoplasty in male-to-female transsexuals, whereas other techniques (rectosigmoid flap, local flaps, and isolated skin grafts) should be considered only in secondary cases.
Surgical reconstruction for male-to-female sex reassignment.
A New Method for Clitoroplasty in Male‐to‐Female Sex Reassignment Surgery
From 1988 to the present, the dorsal portion of the glans penis with the dorsal neurovascular pedicle has been used here for clitoroplasty in nine male-to-female primary transsexuals, and all neoclitorides survived well, with good preservation of light touch and sexual sensation.
Sex Reassignment Surgery in Male to Female Transsexuals
There was only 1 patient who regretted having had the operation, and all the others were well pleased and content that their external sexual organs at last fitted their body image.
Neovaginoplasty in male transsexuals: review of surgical techniques and recommendations regarding eligibility.
This paper presents a review of the various methods to line the neovagina in male-to-female transsexuals and comes to certain recommendations regarding the eligibility of these methods.
Reconstruction of the external genitalia in the adrenogenital syndrome by means of a personal one-stage procedure.
  • U. Hinderer
  • Medicine
    Plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • 1989
The author's one-stage technique for correction of the external genitalia in the adrenogenital syndrome is described with intraoperative illustrations, and the results obtained in nine patients are discussed.
Sculpturing the Neoclitoris in Vaginoplasty for Male‐to‐Female Transsexuals
From the review of the literature and from the experience one may conclude that the technique presents hardly any complications and leads to acceptable results, both functionally and cosmetically.
Male-to-female transsexuals have female neuron numbers in a limbic nucleus.
The present findings of somatostatin neuronal sex differences in the BSTc and its sex reversal in the transsexual brain clearly support the paradigm that in transsexuals sexual differentiation of the brain and genitals may go into opposite directions and point to a neurobiological basis of gender identity disorder.
Construction of a Neovagina with Preservation of the Glans Penis as a Clitoris in Male Transsexuals
  • J. Eldh
  • Medicine
    Plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • 1993
In 20 male-to-female transsexual patients, a neovagina has been constructed using a combination of penile and scrotal flaps and an excellent sexual sensation of the clitoris is expressed, and all 20 were very satisfied with both the cosmetic and functional results.
A method of preserving the glans penis as a clitoris in sex conversion operations in male transsexuals.
  • S. Rubin
  • Medicine
    Scandinavian journal of urology and nephrology
  • 1980
In one young male transsexual the glans penis was used as a substitute for clitoris in sex conversion operations, and the result was good both cosmetically and functionally.