Application of a cervical stimulating apparatus for bilateral transcutaneous phrenic nerve stimulation.


Transcutaneous bilateral phrenic nerve stimulation (tPNS) is frequently used to assess diaphragmatic function in humans. Commonly, stimulation is performed with hand-held electrodes; however, these are unsuitable for studies requiring repeated PNS and where recruitment of rib cage and neck muscles may shift the probes in relation to the nerves. In this… (More)


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