APPENDIX A. PERFORMANCE OF REINFORCED SOIL STRUCTURES DURING EARTHQUAKES Past earthquakes have provided numerous case studies of reinforced soil wall performance under dynamic loading. These cases have expanded our knowledge and increased the confidence in this type of retaining systems. In general reinforced soil structures have performed well in earthquakes. Numerous cases have been reported where reinforced soil structure performance in major earthquakes have been documented (Chen et al. 2000; Collin et al. 1992; Eliahu and Watt 1991; Frankenberger et al. 1996; Fukuda and Tajiri 1994; Huang 2000; Kobayashi et al. 1996; Kramer et al. 2001; Kutter et al. 1990; Ling et al. 2001; Nishimura et al. 1996; Sandri 1994, 1997; Sitar et al. 1997; Stewart et al. 1994a; Stewart et al. 1994b; Tatsuoka et al. 1995, 1996a; Tatsuoka et al. 1996b; Tatsuoka et al. 1998; White and Holtz 1996).