Appendectomy was performed on 40 consecutive consenting patients undergoing elective cesarean section in a clinic population. The control group consisted of all other patients undergoing elective cesarean section during the period of study. The populations were similar. Clinical infection, blood loss, gastrointestinal tract recovery rates were equal in both groups. Appendectomy added 15 minutes to the operation time and extended the hospital stay by about one-half day. There were no wound infections or serious morbidity. A fifth of the appendixes removed were abnormal, including two with inflammation and one with a carcinoid tumor. Prophylactic appendectomy does not seem to add to the risk of elective cesarean section.