The proprotein form of hyaluronan binding protein 1 (HABP1) has been reported to be present in the pachytene spermatocytes and the round spermatids of the adult testis. To explore the role of HABP1 proprotein in spermatogenesis, its expression in the testes of adult rats was compared with that in the testes of developing rats and that in the testes of adult rats that received estriadiol to halt spermatogenesis. Immunoblotting revealed that the mature form of HABP1 was consistently present in the testis, but its precursor form was not found in the testis of animals aged 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. However, immunohistochemical analysis revealed the presence of the proprotein form in the pachytene spermatocytes and the round spermatids of testes from rats aged 21 and the 28 days, the appearance of which correlated well with the appearance of these cells during spermatogenesis. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction revealed transcriptional upregulation of HABP1 in the testes of adult rats, compared with the testes of developing rats. Finally, loss of HABP1 proprotein expression from the pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids was observed in the testes from rats in which spermatogenesis was arrested. Collectively, these findings demonstrate the appearance of HABP1 proprotein in the pachytene spermatocytes and the round spermatids during the initial stages of postnatal testis development and suggest that this expression may be crucial for spermatogenesis.