Apparent Male Gender Identity in a Patient with Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

  title={Apparent Male Gender Identity in a Patient with Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome},
  author={Bindu Kulshreshtha and Pascal Philibert and Marumudi Eunice and Sudhir Kumar Khandelwal and Manju Mehta and Françoise Audran and Françoise Paris and Charles Sultan and Ariachery Chinnama Ammini},
  journal={Archives of Sexual Behavior},
Clinicians universally agree on female sex of rearing inpatients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome(CAIS).Thesepatientshaveafemalephenotypethoughtheyhave an XY karyotype and testis. Long-term studies haveshown an overall patient satisfaction with the assigned fe-male sex, female gender identity, and heterosexual prefer-encesinpatientswithCAIS(Hines,Ahmed,HMazur,2005;Wisniewskietal.,2000).WereporthereacaseofCAIS(rearedasafemaleuntilage11 years)whopresentedwith a desire to live as a… 

Male Gender Identity in Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

This case challenges the role of a functional AR pathway in the development of male gender identity in a CAIS individual raised female leading to complete sex reassignment involving both androgen treatment and phalloplasty.

Gender Incongruity in a Person with 46,XY and Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Raised as a Female.

The patient has undergone bilateral orchiectomy and has initiated treatment with topical testosterone and bisphosphonates and has yet to evaluate the effects and decide the best therapy taking into account that he has a male gender identity but complete androgen insensitivity syndrome.

Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome Associated with Male Gender Identity or Female Precocious Puberty in the Same Family

Despite the common CAIS phenotype, there was a familial disparity for gender identity adequacy and timing and type of puberty.

Psychosexual outcomes in three siblings with partial androgen insensitivity syndrome: impact of nature versus nurture

The clinical profile and results of psychological assessment of three siblings with 46, XY DSD caused by partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) are described, finding that the elder sibling was reared as female, while the middle and youngest siblings were rearing as males.

Gender Outcome in 46,XY Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome: Comment on T’Sjoen et al. (2010)

The case report by T’Sjoen et al. (2010) constitutes the third published case of an originally female-assigned individual with 46,XY complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) who appeared to

Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome with Male Sex-of-Living

Those interested in the psychology of gender identity should pause to question the belief that‘‘gender identity’’always exists as a profound, unalterable psychological force or drive.

Gender identity, gender assignment and reassignment in individuals with disorders of sex development: a major of dilemma

Given the complexity of this management, DSD individuals and their families need to be supported by a specialized multidisciplinary team, which has been universally recognized as the best practice for intersexual conditions.

Sex of rearing seems to exert a powerful influence on gender identity in the absence of strong hormonal influence: report of two siblings with PAIS assigned different sex of rearing

The sex of rearing seems to have played a predominant role in the formation of gender identity in these two patients with PAIS, one reared as a male and the other as female at adolescence.

Sex assignment practice in disorders of sexual differentiation: survey results from paediatric endocrinologists in the Arab region

Practice in the Arab region appears to be in line with the international guidelines in the majority of DSD sex assignment and timing of surgery issues, however, culture and religious beliefs influence the practice in certain circumstances.



Male pseudohermaphroditism: factors determining the gender of rearing in Saudi Arabia.

Psychological aspects of intersex in Saudi patients

The families of the four cases shared a strong desire for their children to be reassigned to the male sex including the third case, irrespective of being assured of her female gender identity by physicians.

The pattern of intersex disorders and gender assignment in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

It is observed that male pseudohermaphroditism formed the highest proportion of intersex disorders is explained, in part, by the high incidence of patients with pseudovaginal perineoscrotal hypospadias.

Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome: long-term medical, surgical, and psychosexual outcome.

Although not perfect, the medical, surgical, and psychosexual outcomes for women with CAIS were satisfactory; however, specific ways for improving long-term treatment of this population were identified.

Gender Dysphoria and Gender Change in Androgen Insensitivity or Micropenis

  • T. Mazur
  • Psychology
    Archives of sexual behavior
  • 2005
The best predictor of adult gender identity in CAIS, PAIS, and micropenis is initial gender assignment, and gender dysphoria also appears to be a rare occurrence.

Psychological Outcomes and Gender-Related Development in Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome

It is suggested that psychological outcomes in women with CAIS are similar to those in other women, and additional attention to more detailed aspects of psychological well-being in CAIS is needed.

Postnatal changes of T, LH, and FSH in 46,XY infants with mutations in the AR gene.

It is concluded that the postnatal T and LH surge occurs expectedly in neonates with PAIS but is absent in those with CAIS and that thePostnatal T rise requires the receptivity of the hypothalamo-pituitary axis to T.

Point mutation in the steroid-binding domain of the androgen receptor gene in a family with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS)

An exonic single nucleotide substitution in the human androgen receptor gene (hAR) could be detected in an Italian family with two children affected by complete androgen insensitivity syndrome

Single base mutations in the human androgen receptor gene causing complete androgen insensitivity: rapid detection by a modified denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technique.

It is demonstrated that single amino acid changes within the region encoded by exons D to H of the AR gene can alter androgen binding and are a common cause of complete androgen resistance.

Sex chromosome genes directly affect brain sexual differentiation

Using mice in which the genetic sex of the brain was independent of gonadal phenotype, it was found that XY and XX brain cells differed in phenotype, indicating that a brain cell's complement of sex chromosomes may contribute to its sexual differentiation.