Apotemnophilia or Body Integrity Identity Disorder

  title={Apotemnophilia or Body Integrity Identity Disorder},
  author={Rami Bou Khalil and Sami Richa},
  journal={The International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds},
  pages={313 - 319}
  • R. Khalil, S. Richa
  • Published 21 October 2012
  • Medicine
  • The International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds
Apotemnophilia or body integrity identity disorder (BIID) denotes a syndrome in which a person is preoccupied with the desire to amputate a healthy limb. In this report, we review the available case reports in the literature in order to enhance psychiatrists’ and physicians’ comprehension of this disorder. A search for the case reports available via MEDLINE was done since the first case report published by Money et al in 1977 till May 2011, using the following terms: apotemnophilia, self-demand… Expand
Apotemnophilia, body integrity identity disorder or xenomelia? Psychiatric and neurologic etiologies face each other
This review summarizes the available studies of a rare condition in which individuals seek the amputation of a healthy limb or desire to be paraplegic, and proposes a multidisciplinary approach that comprises state-of-the-art technologies and a variety of theoretical models, including both body representation and psychological and sexual components. Expand
Body integrity identity disorder: clinical features and ethical dimensions
Body integrity identity disorder (BIID) is a rare and complex identity disorder described by the desire to acquire a physical disability and an associated sense of incompleteness at beingExpand
Body integrity identity disorder crosses culture: case reports in the Japanese and Chinese literature
Some preliminary evidence is reported that BIID is also present in non-Western countries, however, making general statements about the biological background of the disorder is hampered by the extremely low number of cases found. Expand
Is the desire for amputation related to disturbed emotion processing? A multiple case study analysis in BIID
It is demonstrated that BIID is not characterized by a general emotional impairment; rather, there is a selectively reduced disgust response to violations of the body envelope. Expand
Clinical Case Studies
Objective: Body integrity identity disorder is characterized by a desire to obtain a physical disability, often in the form of amputation. To date, we are aware of no comprehensive investigations ofExpand
An Investigation of Lower Limb Representations Underlying Vision, Touch, and Proprioception in Body Integrity Identity Disorder
It is suggested that BIID is not a body image disorder, per se, and that an examination of leg representation does not uncover the disturbed bodily experience that individuals with BIID have. Expand
Disturbed body integrity and the "rubber foot illusion".
These findings might reflect the malleable sense of the body in xenomelia and suggest a weakened representation of the affected body part, and may support the use of multisensory stimulation in therapeutic settings. Expand
Limb amputation and other disability desires as a medical condition.
This Review integrates research findings about the desire for a major limb amputation or paralysis (xenomelia) and suggests that disability desires are accompanied by a disabling bodily dysphoria, in many respects similar to gender dysphoria and should be considered a mental disorder. Expand
Commentary on “Grey matter or social matters? Causal attributions in the era of biological psychiatry”
  • A. Sedda
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • European Psychiatry
  • 2018
The paper by Brugger, Kurthen, Rashidi-Ranjbar and Leggenhager describes how individuals who are “potential medical specialists” compare to those who are not in perceiving causal attributions in aExpand
Gender Dysphoria and Transgender Identity Is Associated with Physiological and Psychological Masculinization: a Theoretical Integration of Findings, Supported by Systematic Reviews
Introduction Gender dysphoria (GD) is associated with several psychiatric conditions, but the causal links are not known. We note that some of these conditions are associated with physiologicalExpand


[Apotemnophilia as a contemporary frame for psychological suffering].
The idea that BIID can be considered as a culture-bound syndrome, a contemporary frame for psychological suffering is supported, despite the fact that it does not have neither intrinsic nor unequivocal psychopathological meaning. Expand
Investigation of the Syndrome of Apotemnophilia and Course of a Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy
The model designed in the current cognitive behavioural approach may serve as a starting point for further development of intervention protocols for this rare disorder. Expand
Body integrity identity disorder: response to Patrone
Body integrity identity disorder (BIID) is a very rare condition in which people experience long-standing anguish because there is a mismatch between their bodies and their internal image of howExpand
Apotemnophilia: ethical considerations of amputating a healthy limb
  • A. Dua
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of Medical Ethics
  • 2010
It is argued that observing an apotemnophile's request for amputation is the ethical action, and a discourse on how the accepted notion of harm does not apply to apotemophilia is developed to justify the position that amputation was indeed medically the ethical choice. Expand
Can vestibular caloric stimulation be used to treat apotemnophilia?
It is suggested that there are clear similarities to be drawn between BIID and somatoparaphrenia and that a dysfunction of the right parietal lobe is also the cause of BIID. Expand
Body Integrity Identity Disorder (BIID): What do health care professionals know?
The degree to which British and German health care professionals are informed about causes and symptoms of BIID sufferers was assessed and female professionals voted more often for supporting the patient to fulfil his wish for amputation. Expand
Disfigured anatomies and imperfect analogies: body integrity identity disorder and the supposed right to self-demanded amputation of healthy body parts
  • D. Patrone
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Journal of Medical Ethics
  • 2009
This paper criticises the appropriateness of the particular analogies that are thought to shed light on the allegedly unproblematical nature of BIIDs demands and argues that a proper understanding of the respect for autonomy in the medical decision-making context prohibits agreeing to BIID demands for amputation. Expand
Apotemnophilia Masquerading as Medical Morbidity
A case of apotemnophilia, or “love of amputation,” in a man in his mid-20s, defined as self-desired amputation driven by the patient's erotic fantasy of possessing an amputated limb and overachieving despite being handicapped is reported. Expand
Desire for amputation of a limb: paraphilia, psychosis, or a new type of identity disorder
  • M. First
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Psychological Medicine
  • 2004
The preliminary results suggest the existence of an extremely unusual clinically distinct condition characterized by a lifelong desire to have an amputation of a particular limb associated with serious negative consequences: amputation attempts, impairment and marked distress. Expand
Apotemnophilia: Two cases of self‐demand amputation as a paraphilia
The findings in two cases show that self‐demand amputation (apotemnophilia) is related to erotization of the stump and to overachievement despite a handicap. The apotemnophiliac obsession representsExpand