Apoptosis following photodynamic tumor therapy: induction, mechanisms and detection.

@article{Plaetzer2005ApoptosisFP,
  title={Apoptosis following photodynamic tumor therapy: induction, mechanisms and detection.},
  author={Kristjan Plaetzer and Tobias Kiesslich and Christian Benno Oberdanner and Barbara Krammer},
  journal={Current pharmaceutical design},
  year={2005},
  volume={11 9},
  pages={
          1151-65
        }
}
As a treatment modality for malign and certain non-malignant diseases, photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves a two step protocol which consists of the (selective) uptake and accumulation of a photosensitizing agent in target cells and the subsequent irradiation with light in the visible range. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during this process cause cellular damage and, depending on the treatment dose/severity of damage, lead to either cellular repair/survival, apoptotic cell death or… 

Apoptosis in cancer cells induced by photodynamic treatment – a methodological approach

This conceptual framework attempts to provide a rational experimental approach for initial in vitro, cell-based characterization of newly synthesized photosensitizers or formulations thereof to plug the gap between subsequent in vivo evaluation and the preceding fundamental (physico-)chemical work devoted to the improvement of photosensitizing drugs based on mainly porphyrins, phthalocyanines and their derivatives.

Signal Transduction and Photodynamic Therapy

The cell death mode (necrosis or apoptosis) is shown to be controlled not only by PDT parameters (irradiation intensity, intracellular photosensitizer localization and its concentration) but also by signal transduction processes.

Phenalenone‐photodynamic therapy induces apoptosis on human tumor cells mediated by caspase‐8 and p38‐MAPK activation

The present work identifies PN, for the first time, as a potent photosensitizer in human tumor cell lines and proposes a mechanism by which ROS induces apoptosis of tumor cell.

Time course of apoptosis induced by photodynamic therapy with PsD007 in LT12 acute myeloid leukemia cells

The time course of apoptosis events in response to PDT treatment in a leukemia cell line is examined to clarify the time course and may help contribute to the clinical application of PDT in leukemia treatment.

Photodynamic treatment with hexyl-aminolevulinate mediates reversible thiol oxidation in core oxidative stress signaling proteins.

This study represents the first comprehensive mapping of reversibly oxidized proteins subsequent to HAL-PDT, which constitute potentially novel redox-regulated apoptotic triggers as well as potential targets for adjuvants that may improve the efficacy of HAL- PDT and PDT using other photosensitizers.

The influence of photodynamic therapy on the immune response.

survival induced by disulphonated aluminum phthalocyanine photodynamic treatment in a human glioma cell line

Investigating the concentration dependent photodynamic effects of AlPcS 2 concluded that concentration-dependent changes in physico-chemical properties of sensitizer such as aggregation may influence intracellular transport and localization of photosensitizer.

Photodynamic therapy and anti-tumour immunity

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses non-toxic photosensitizers and harmless visible light in combination with oxygen to produce cytotoxic reactive oxygen species that kill malignant cells by apoptosis

Photodynamic Therapy—Current Limitations and Novel Approaches

The current limitations of PDT utilization in cancer will be reviewed, since identifying problems associated with design/synthesis of photosensitizers as well as application of light and tissue oxygenation might pave the way for more effective PDT approaches.

Photodynamic therapy in head and neck carcinomas : clinical and in vitro studies.

This thesis has demonstrated that PDT and its related optical system together are able to detect, treat and reduce invasion and metastasis of head and neck carcinoma.
...

References

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Photodynamic therapy has been shown to effectively induce apoptosis in several model systems since ROS formed by photoprocesses can directly damage mitochondria, which act as key regulators in active cell death.

The role of apoptosis in response to photodynamic therapy: what, where, why, and how.

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The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate all of the recently published research on PDT-induced apoptosis, with a focus on studies providing mechanistic insights.

The photobiology of photodynamic therapy: cellular targets and mechanisms.

In spite of generating some responses common to ionizing radiation and other oxidative stresses, PDT is unique in the subcellular localization of damage, the combination of signaling pathways that are activated, and rapid kinetics of the induction of cell death processes.

Photodynamic Therapy-induced Apoptosis in Epidermoid Carcinoma Cells

The data indicate that the mitochondrial ROS are critical in initiating mitochondrial inner membrane permeabilization, which leads to mitochondrial swelling, cytochrome c release to the cytosol, and apoptotic death during PDT with Pc 4.

Signaling pathways in cell death and survival after photodynamic therapy.

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  • Biology
    Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology
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Rapid Initiation of Apoptosis by Photodynamic Therapy

The presence of either cationic sensitizer inhibited the rapid internucleosomal cleavage induced by SnET2 or PcD photodamage, and the site of photodynamic action may be a major determinant of the initiation and rate of progression of apoptosis.

Light and death: photons and apoptosis.

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These three apoptotic mechanisms each access one of two "points-of-no-return" located on the mitochondrial membrane, which activate different, but not mutually exclusive, final pathways of apoptosis.

Ceramide generation in response to photodynamic treatment of L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells.

It is suggested that the PDT-stimulated increase in synthesis of ceramide in LY-R cells may be coupled to PDT-induced apoptosis.

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Characterization of the cell death modes and the associated changes in cellular energy supply in response to AlPcS4-PDT.

Data suggest that, depending on the light dose applied, both, necrosis as well as apoptosis can be induced with AlPcS4 mediated PDT and that photodamage in energy supplying cellular targets may influence the mode of cell death.
...