Exploring the potential of the platelet membrane proteome as a source of peripheral biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease
We previously demonstrated increased apolipoprotein B (apoB) mRNA editing, elevated levels of mRNA for the catalytic component of the apoB mRNA editing complex, apobec-1, and increased secretion of the product of the edited mRNA, apoB48, in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) in primary cultures of Sprague-Dawley rat hepatocytes following insulin treatment. In order to determine the effect of in vivo hyperinsulinemia on these processes, we determined apoB mRNA editing, apobec-1 expression, hepatic expression of mRNA for apoB and other VLDL apoproteins, and the quantity and composition of plasma VLDL in the hyperinsulinemic fatty Zucker rat. Total apoB mRNA content of the livers of the fatty rats and lean littermates did not differ, however, edited apoB message coding for hepatic apo B48, and abundance of mRNA for the catalytic subunit of the apoB mRNA editing complex, apobec-1, was increased by 1.7-and 3.3-fold, respectively, in fatty rats. ApoCIII mRNA abundance was increased in livers of fatty rats as well, but the abundance of hepatic apoE mRNA in the fatty animal was not different from that of the lean rat. Hepatic apoAI mRNA abundance was also increased in the fatty rats. Associated with increased apoB mRNA editing, was the 1.7-fold increase in the fraction of apoB in plasma as apoB48 in fatty rats. VLDL-triglyceride and-apoB in plasma were 15-and 3-fold higher, respectively, in fatty Zucker rats compared to lean littermates, indicating both enrichment of VLDL with triglycerides and increased accumulation of VLDL particles. Increased hepatic expression of mRNA for apoCIII and apoAI was associated with increased content of apoC (and relative depletion of apoE) in VLDL of fatty rats, and plasma apoAI was increased in fatty Zucker rats, primarily in the HDL fraction. The current study provides further evidence that chronic exposure to high levels of insulin influences both the quantity of and lipid/apoprotein composition of VLDL in plasma. The increased apoC and decreased apoE (as well as increased triglyceride) content of VLDL in the fatty Zucker rat observed in the current study may affect VLDL clearance and therefore may be a factor in the observed accumulation of VLDL in the plasma of the fatty hyperinsulinemic Zucker rats.