Apidima Cave fossils provide earliest evidence of Homo sapiens in Eurasia

  title={Apidima Cave fossils provide earliest evidence of Homo sapiens in Eurasia},
  author={Katerina Harvati and Carolin R{\"o}ding and Abel Marinus Bosman and Fotios Alexandros Karakostis and Rainer Gr{\"u}n and Chris B Stringer and Panagiotis Karkanas and Nicholas Thompson and Vassilis Koutoulidis and Lia Angela Moulopoulos and Vassilis G. Gorgoulis and Mirsini Kouloukoussa},
Two fossilized human crania (Apidima 1 and Apidima 2) from Apidima Cave, southern Greece, were discovered in the late 1970s but have remained enigmatic owing to their incomplete nature, taphonomic distortion and lack of archaeological context and chronology. Here we virtually reconstruct both crania, provide detailed comparative descriptions and analyses, and date them using U-series radiometric methods. Apidima 2 dates to more than 170 thousand years ago and has a Neanderthal-like… 
Modern human incursion into Neanderthal territories 54,000 years ago at Mandrin, France
Determining the extent of overlap between modern humans and other hominins in Eurasia, such as Neanderthals and Denisovans, is fundamental to understanding the nature of their interactions and what
Nubian Levallois technology associated with southernmost Neanderthals
This work presents new quantitative analyses of a hominin lower first molar and associated stone tool assemblage from Shukbah Cave, located in the Palestinian West Bank, presenting the first direct association between Neanderthals and Nubian Levallois technology.
Resolving the “muddle in the middle”: The case for Homo bodoensis sp. nov.
This work proposes the introduction of a new taxon, Homo bodoensis sp.
A new perspective on the origin of Homo sapiens
ABSTRACT In this paper, we critically review the current paradigm, which places the origin of Homo sapiens in Africa as the result of the evolution of a Middle Pleistocene species. In the African


New fossils from Jebel Irhoud, Morocco and the pan-African origin of Homo sapiens.
A mosaic of features including facial, mandibular and dental morphology that aligns the Jebel Irhoud material with early or recent anatomically modern humans and more primitive neurocranial and endocranial morphology shows that the evolutionary processes behind the emergence of H. sapiens involved the whole African continent.
Neandertal roots: Cranial and chronological evidence from Sima de los Huesos
The sample shows a consistent morphological pattern with derived Neandertal features present in the face and anterior vault, many of which are related to the masticatory apparatus, pointing to a mosaic pattern of evolution.
The earliest modern humans outside Africa
A maxilla and associated dentition recently discovered at Misliya Cave, Israel, was dated to 177,000 to 194,000 years ago, suggesting that members of the Homo sapiens clade left Africa earlier than previously thought.
The origin of Neandertals
  • J. Hublin
  • Environmental Science, Geography
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
  • 2009
The term “Homo rhodesiensis” is proposed to be used to designate the large-brained hominins ancestral to H. sapiens in Africa and at the root of the Neandertals in Europe, and the term ‘Homo neanderthalensis’ to designate all of the specimens carrying derived metrical or non-metrical features used in the definition of the LP NeandERTals.
The origin and evolution of Homo sapiens
  • C. Stringer
  • Geography, Environmental Science
    Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
  • 2016
It is argued that human fossils such as those from Jebel Irhoud, Florisbad, Eliye Springs and Omo Kibish 2 do represent early members of the species, but variation across the African later middle Pleistocene/early Middle Stone Age fossils shows that there was not a simple linear progression towards later sapiens morphology, and there was chronological overlap between different ‘archaic’ and ‘modern’ morphs.
When did modern humans leave Africa?
Fossil evidence from Misliya Cave, Israel, is provided suggesting that H. sapiens had already left Africa by ∼180,000 years ago, suggesting early forays of Homo sapiens into western Asia.