Apes Save Tools for Future Use

  title={Apes Save Tools for Future Use},
  author={Nicholas John Mulcahy and Josep Call},
  pages={1038 - 1040}
Planning for future needs, not just current ones, is one of the most formidable human cognitive achievements. Whether this skill is a uniquely human adaptation is a controversial issue. In a study we conducted, bonobos and orangutans selected, transported, and saved appropriate tools above baseline levels to use them 1 hour later (experiment 1). Experiment 2 extended these results to a 14-hour delay between collecting and using the tools. Experiment 3 showed that seeing the apparatus during… 

Ravens parallel great apes in flexible planning for tool-use and bartering

It is shown that ravens plan for events unrelated to caching—tool-use and bartering—with delays of up to 17 hours, exert self-control, and consider temporal distance to future events, which suggests that planning evolved independently in corvids, which opens new avenues for the study of cognitive evolution.

Apes produce tools for future use

The fact that apes were able to solve this new task indicates that their planning skills are flexible, and this raises the question whether chimpanzees, orangutans, and bonobos would produce tools for future use.

3 Chimpanzees plan their tool use

To a cognitive psychologist, chimpanzee tool use is exciting because of the opportunity it brings to examine how apes deal with a range of challenging situations that in humans would invoke planning.

New Caledonian crows plan for specific future tool use

It is established that planning for specific future tool use can evolve via convergent evolution, given that corvids and humans shared a common ancestor over 300 million years ago, and offers a route to mapping the planning capacities of animals.

Great apes can defer exchange: a replication with different results suggesting future oriented behavior

It is found that it is within the capabilities of chimpanzees and orangutans to perform deferred exchange in both conditions, and claims that great ape foresight is highly limited has been based on this study.

Planning for the future by western scrub-jays

It is suggested that the jays can spontaneously plan for tomorrow without reference to their current motivational state, thereby challenging the idea that this is a uniquely human ability.

The cognitive bases of human tool use

  • K. Vaesen
  • Psychology
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • 2012
It is concluded that human tool use still marks a major cognitive discontinuity between us and the authors' closest relatives and the evolution of human technologies.

Bonobos and orangutans, but not chimpanzees, flexibly plan for the future in a token-exchange task

Bonobos and orangutans, unlike chimpanzees, planned outside the context of tool-use, thus challenging the idea that planning in these species is purely domain-specific.

What Human Planning Can Tell Us About Animal Planning: An Empirical Case

Inspired by a problem that chimpanzees experienced in the wild, children of 4 and 5 years of age and young adults were presented with a situation in which they were expected to select two tools in order to obtain a reward and more older children than 4 years old successfully obtained the reward.



Mental time travel in animals?

Are animals stuck in time?

Research on animals' abilities to detect time of day, track short time intervals, remember the order of a sequence of events, and anticipate future events are considered and it is concluded that the stuck-in-time hypothesis is largely supported by the current evidence.

The Mentality of Crows: Convergent Evolution of Intelligence in Corvids and Apes

It is argued that complex cognitive abilities evolved multiple times in distantly related species with vastly different brain structures in order to solve similar socioecological problems.

Fish cognition: a primate's eye view

It is concluded that more detailed studies on decision rules and mechanisms are necessary to test for differences between the cognitive abilities of primates and other taxa and proposed a variety of fish species that are most promising as study objects.

Précis of Elements of episodic memory

  • E. Tulving
  • Psychology
    Behavioral and Brain Sciences
  • 1984
Abstract Elements of episodic memory (Tulving 1983b) consists of three parts. Part I argues for the distinction between episodic and semantic memory as functionally separate albeit closely

Learning when reward is delayed: a marking hypothesis.

Learning was found to be just as strong when the choice response was followed by an intense light or noise as by handling and the implication of marking for other phenomena such as avoidance, quasi-reinforcement, and the paradoxical effects of punishment is discussed.

The Mentality of Apes.

PROF. KÖHLER'S book marks a distinct advance in comparative psychology, for he was able to study his chimpanzees in very favourable conditions of health and housing in Teneriffe. He also realised

Mental map in wild chimpanzees: An analysis of hammer transports for nut cracking

The mental map of wild chimpanzees is analyzed in the context of their transports of clubs and stones used for cracking two species of nuts of different hardness,Coula edulis andPanda oleosa, in the

Effects of experience and social context on prospective caching strategies by scrub jays

It is shown that jays with prior experience of pilfering another bird's caches subsequently re-cached food in new cache sites during recovery trials, but only when they had been observed caching.

Scrub jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) remember the relative time of caching as well as the location and content of their caches.

Two experiments examined whether food-storing scrub jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) could remember the relative time of caching as well as what type of food was cached in each cache site.