Aotus Diversity and the Species Problem

  title={Aotus Diversity and the Species Problem},
  author={Thomas R. Defler and Marta Luc{\'i}a Bueno},
Abstract: Karyotypic variability in Aotus suggests at least seven species in the gray-necked group (A. brumbacki, A. griseimembra, A. lemurinus, A. trivirgatus, A. vociferans, A. zonalis, and Aotus sp. nov.) based on six known karyomorphs, highly divergent mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase sequences, different sensitivities to malaria, varied mitogenic and immunological responses to other diseases, and well-defiined geographical distributions, and the likelihood that these species are… 

An Aotus Karyotype from Extreme Eastern Colombia

This work used precise chromosome G-band measurements and digital arm-ratio analyses to provide convincing evidence that the night monkey from Maipures, Vichada, Colombia, is in fact a hybrid of Aotus brumbacki.

Molecular Phylogenetics of Aotus (Platyrrhini, Cebidae)

The accurate identification of taxa of Aotus is essential for 1) the development of precise biomedical assays, 2) the determination of potential illegal traffic of this genus, and 3) conservation.

Chromosome Painting in Two Genera of South American Monkeys: Species Identification, Conservation, and Management

This report presents a report on the hybridization of human chromosome-specific paints on metaphases from 4 individuals originally assigned to Alouatta caraya and 1 individual of Aotuslemurinus and results were generally comparable to the banding and hybridization pattern of previous studies of A. caraya.

Identification, classification and evolution of Owl Monkeys (Aotus, Illiger 1811)

Alternative phylogenetic reconstructions, when compared with karyotypic and biogeographic data, led to the proposition of evolutionary scenarios questioning the conventional diversification of this genus in monophyletic groups with grey and red necks.

Revisiting the taxonomic status and ecological partitioning of night monkeys genus Aotus in western Colombia, with notes on Aotus zonalis Goldman, 1914

The morphological variation, distribution patterns, and taxonomy of night monkeys in the genus Aotus from northwestern Colombia deposited at the Field Museum of Natural History are reviewed and GIS based analyses and Maxent modeling are used to define the geographic extent and ecological limiting factors of the analyzed taxa.


It was concluded that the cytogenetically analyzed individuals belonged to the "gray necked" group identified as Aotus griseimembra, a species distributed throughout certain areas in the middle Magdalena river valley, Colombia.

mtDNA diversity in Azara's owl monkeys (Aotus azarai azarai) of the Argentinean Chaco.

An ancient phylogeographic discontinuity among Aotus species living north, south, and west of the Amazon River that began more than eight million years ago is observed and data point to a recent expansion of Azara's owl monkeys into the Argentinean Chaco.

How many species of woolly monkeys inhabit Colombian forests?

Evidence is obtained indicating that the subspecies status is appropriate for the Lagothrix lagothricha subspecies of L. l.

Molecular Genetics Analysis of mtDNA COII Gene Sequences Shows Illegal Traffic of Night Monkeys (Aotus, Platyrrhini, Primates) in Colombia

Molecular analysis using mtDNA COII gene sequences demonstrates that the FIDIC’s laboratory contains A. nancymaae specimens which could have been acquired through illegal trafficking of this species.



Chromosome diversity of the genus Aotus from Colombia

A proposal for a chromosome nomenclature of Aotus karyomorphs that aims to clarify Aotu taxonomy is presented which achieves a precise correspondence of different banding patterns, based on Q, G, R, and C sequential banding and chromosome measurements.

Two new species of night monkeys, genus Aotus (Cebidae, platyrrhini): A preliminary report on Aotus taxonomy

The nine allopatric species of Aotus recognized represent two natural groups distinguished by karyotype, color, and pelage patterns, and a key to the species and subspecies gives the diagnostic characters of each.


It is suggested that in fact the "subspecies" of Aotus lemurinus may in fact be full species in light of their karyological differences, and that the karyotypes published for Aotu griseimembra need to be confi rmed with specimens from known collection sites and that, in fact, Aots from lowland sites of the Caribbean coast may be another taxon, yet to be described.

Aotus vociferans ×Aotus nancymai: Sympatry without chromosomal hybridation

Karyotype and coat pattern data suggest that A. vociferans and A. nancymai should indeed be distinct species of Aotus.

Karyotypic evolution in Aotus

The resulting phylogenetic hypothesis is entirely self‐consistent, is in accord with out‐group comparisons, does not invoke hybridization between ancestral forms, and, importantly, indicates a single origin for each rearrangement of euchromatic segments.

Chromosome evolution in the owl monkey, Aotus

The mechanism of chromosomal evolution is reconstructed and the hypothesis that isolated groups of ancestral individuals living in several confined areas have separately accumulated a fusion or inversion pair as a result of inbreeding is proposed.

Owl monkeys (Aotus) are highly divergent in mitochondrial Cytochromec Oxidase (COII) sequences

The AotusCOII data support the existence of multiple species of Aotu, with origins predating late Pleistocene climatic events, and suggest that the taxa are genetically quite distinct and have likely experienced extended periods of isolated evolution.


  • A. KumamotoM. Houck
  • Biology
    Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
  • 2001
Cytogenetic analyses are necessary to identify most Aotus taxa and thus should be utilized to pair chromosomally compatible animals and avoid interspecies hybridization.

Cytogenetic studies of Aotus from Eastern Amazonia. Y/Autosome rearrangement

Twenty‐one specimens of Aotus were captured on both sides of the Tocantins river when the hydroelectric reservoir of Tucuruí, Brazil, was filled. The males had a diploid number of 49 chromosomes, and