Mid-term outcomes of surgical repair for anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery: In infants, children and adults
BACKGROUND Since 1989 all patients with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery at our institution have been treated with aortic implantation. The purpose of this review was to assess the late outcomes of these patients, especially regarding left ventricular (LV) function and mitral valve insufficiency. METHODS Between 1989 and 2014, 36 patients had aortic implantation of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. Mean age at surgery was 2.5 ± 5.1 years (median, 0.5 years). Operative strategy included antegrade cold-blood cardioplegia, main pulmonary artery transection, aortic implantation with a large button of pulmonary artery, pulmonary reconstruction with fresh autologous pericardium, and prolonged postoperative inotropic and ventilator support. Mitral regurgitation and LV dysfunction were graded as 0 to 4 (0 = none, 1 = trivial, 1.5 = trivial-mild, 2 = mild, 2.5 = mild-moderate, 3 = moderate, 3.5 = moderate-severe, and 4 = severe). RESULTS Mean mitral regurgitation grade preoperatively was 2.95 ± 0.95. Mean LV dysfunction grade was 3.14 ± 1.27. Mean cross-clamp and cardiopulmonary bypass times were 49.1 ± 18 minutes (median, 48.5 minutes) and 147.5 ± 45 minutes (median, 139 minutes), respectively. There was no operative or late mortality. Four patients had delayed sternal closure. Mean duration of ventilator support was 11 ± 6.6 days (median, 9 days). Two patients required 3 and 6 days of postoperative extracorporeal mechanical circulatory support. Mean length of stay was 25 ± 18 days (median, 19 days). No patient has required reoperation for supravalvar pulmonary stenosis, coronary stenosis, or mitral valve repair or replacement. Late echocardiographic follow-up shows a mean mitral regurgitation grade of 1.67 ± 1.05 and a mean LV dysfunction grade of 0.23 ± 0.68. CONCLUSIONS Aortic implantation is our procedure of choice for patients with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. No patient required mitral valve repair or transplant. There was marked improvement of mitral regurgitation grade, return to essentially normal LV function, and no mortality during a 25-year period.