Any given Saturday: competitive balance in elite English rugby union

@article{Williams2012AnyGS,
  title={Any given Saturday: competitive balance in elite English rugby union},
  author={Peter Williams},
  journal={Managing Leisure},
  year={2012},
  volume={17},
  pages={105 - 88}
}
  • P. Williams
  • Published 18 May 2012
  • Economics
  • Managing Leisure
Competitive balance (CB) is a key consideration for those who administer professional sports leagues. This paper examines CB in elite rugby union in England since leagues were formed in 1987. Using a range of established and sport-specific metrics, results indicate that levels of CB have been broadly responsive to a combination of externally imposed and internally generated developments in rugby's competitive environment. The implications for policy-makers suggest that, while rugby union… 
Professional Rugby on the Celtic Fringe
The design of sports leagues has significant financial implications for the organisers and member teams and for the relative success or failure of the individual clubs. Using the Pro 14 rugby league
Historical and contemporary trends in competitive balance in the Commonwealth Games. [Las tendencias históricas y contemporáneas en el equilibrio competitivo en los Juegos de la Commonwealth].
Studies of competitive balance in sport have considered primarily professional leagues and team sports. This paper investigates trends in competitive balance in a multi-sport event context – the
Mind the gap: an analysis of competitive balance in the English football league system
Competitive balance of league competitions is an important component of sport economics. Evidence suggests that a less attractive product might struggle to command a high market value. Thus, it is
Rugby's Celtic fringe goes global – an economic analysis of the Pro14
PurposeThe introduction of professionalism in 1995 posed serious challenges for Rugby Union in Ireland, Scotland and Wales given their limited fan bases and broadcast markets. It led to the creation
A longitudinal and comparative analysis of competitive balance in five European football leagues
Purpose This paper aims to provide empirical evidence on competitive balance in the “big five” European football leagues, namely, the English Premier League, French Ligue 1, German Bundesliga,
Competitive balance in athletics
While most research on elite sport success focuses on sport policy factors or the explanatory powers of macro-level factors such as wealth and population, sporting success of countries is also
Parachute Payments in English Football: Softening the Landing or Distorting the Balance?
ABSTRACT This paper examines the impact of parachute payments in English league football in relation to the competitive balance of the second tier (the Championship). League results and parachute
Different shaped ball, same financial problems? A holistic performance assessment of English Rugby Union (2006-2015)
Purpose Rugby union’s late move to professionalism in 1995 has led to concerns about the financial development of the game. The purpose of this paper is to extend the knowledge base on
The future of women's football in Asia: a look at competitive balance in top 5 domestic football leagues from 2010 to 2019
PurposeThis paper analyses competitive balance in the “big five” women's football leagues in Asia longitudinally between 2010 and 2019.Design/methodology/approachCompetitive balance has been measured
An Analysis of Nations' Performance inInternational Multi-Sport Competitions
In recent years the competition between nations for success in elite sport has intensified, which has resulted in increasing sums of money being invested by some nations into elite sport
...
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 49 REFERENCES
The Impact of Free Agency on Competitive Balance in North American Professional Team Sports Leagues
Free agency was reintroduced to professional team sport leagues in the 1970s. Sport enthusiasts expressed concern that competitive balance would diminish as star players congregated to large market
Thinking about Competitive Balance
Simon Rottenberg long ago noted that the nature of sports is such that competitors must be of approximately equal ability if any are to be financially successful. In recent years, sports commentators
Alternative Measures of Competitive Balance in Sports Leagues
The most commonly used measures of competitive balance in sports leagues do not capture season-to-season changes in relative standings. This article describes an alternative measure of competitive
Impact of league restructuring on team sport attendances: the case of rugby league
An econometric analysis of attendances at Rugby Footbal League matches, in England, over the period 1966–1990 is presented. The major finding is that the move from one to two leagues, in 1973, had a
Competition in Major League Baseball: the impact expansion
Numerous empirical studies of competition within Major League Baseball (MLB) have highlighted the recent rise in competitive balance. While most explanations for the increased competitiveness have
Competitive Balance and Attendance in Major League Baseball: An Empirical Test of the Uncertainty of Outcome Hypothesis
Competitive balance research partitions into two areas: analyzing sports policy and its effect on competitive balance and the uncertainty of outcome hypothesis. This paper examines the latter
The Many Dimensions of Competitive Balance
Discussions of competitive imbalance use Major League Baseball as a focal point, and proposed remedies center on redistributions of revenues from well-heeled owners to financially strapped
Our fans in the north: the demand for British Rugby League
This paper reports the results of estimating a single equation model of an attendance function for British Rugby League over the seasons 1982/83 to 1990/91. The data are panel data covering virtually
“Competitive Balance in Sports Leagues: An Introduction”
The authors summarize the literature on competitive balance to point out that there is no need for Zimbalist's editorial position that a single measurement of competitive balance is the correct
...
...