Anxiety disorders

  title={Anxiety disorders},
  author={Michelle G. Craske and Murray B. Stein and Thalia C. Eley and Mohammed R. Milad and Andrew Holmes and Ronald M. Rapee and Hans-Ulrich Wittchen},
  journal={Nature Reviews Disease Primers},
Anxiety disorders constitute the largest group of mental disorders in most western societies and are a leading cause of disability. The essential features of anxiety disorders are excessive and enduring fear, anxiety or avoidance of perceived threats, and can also include panic attacks. Although the neurobiology of individual anxiety disorders is largely unknown, some generalizations have been identified for most disorders, such as alterations in the limbic system, dysfunction of the… 
Prevention of Anxiety Disorders Across the Lifespan
This issue of JAMA Psychiatry presents the first systematic review and meta-analysis examining the efficacy of prevention of anxiety disorders across the lifespan, and presents a common misconception that anxiety disorders are reserved for the “worried well” and represent a personality flaw rather than a disorder.
A major role for common genetic variation in anxiety disorders
It is concluded that common genetic variation accounts for a substantive proportion of the genetic architecture underlying anxiety.
Examining sex differences in neurodevelopmental and psychiatric genetic risk in anxiety and depression
It is indicated that sex may not be a major index of neurodevelopmental genetic heterogeneity, that is captured by ADHD PRS and rare CNV burden, in adults with anxiety and depression.
Generalized Anxiety and Panic Symptoms in the German National Cohort (NAKO).
  • A. Erhardt, G. Gelbrich, J. Deckert
  • Psychology, Medicine
    The world journal of biological psychiatry : the official journal of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry
  • 2021
Clinically relevant GAD symptoms as well as panic attacks are frequent in the NAKO, are associated with sociodemographic factors and high anxiety symptoms are accompanied by pronounced stress and depression levels.
Risk and protective factors for anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders: an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analyses
Although the amount and quality of the evidence for most risk/protective factors for anxiety and obsessive-compulsive disorders is limited, a number of factors significantly increase the risk for these disorders, may have potential prognostic ability and inform prevention.
Investigating gender-specific effects of familial risk for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and other neurodevelopmental disorders in the Swedish population
Results provide modest support for the possibility that familial/genetic risks for ADHD may show gender-specific phenotypic expression, and there could be gender- specific biases in diagnoses of anxiety and ADHD.
A Diagnostic-Oriented Screening Scale for Anxiety Disorders: The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Anxiety Scale (CESA)
The main findings suggest that the CESA is useful for screening for anxiety in general (alpha coefficient of 0.83), as well as for the four common anxiety disorders.
Molecular Basis Underlying the Therapeutic Potential of Vitamin D for the Treatment of Depression and Anxiety
The main mechanisms that may underlie the potential antidepressant and anxiolytic effects of vitamin D are highlighted and preclinical and clinical studies that support the therapeutic potential of this vitamin for the management of these disorders are discussed.
Shared genetic etiology between anxiety disorders and psychiatric and related intermediate phenotypes
It is suggested that common genetic variants underlying the risk of anxiety disorders contribute to elevated risks of MDD, SCZ, ADHD and neuroticism and reduced quality of life, putamen volume and cognitive performance.


Epidemiology of anxiety disorders in the 21st century
There is no evidence that the prevalence rates of anxiety disorders have changed in the past years, but in cross-cultural comparisons, prevalence rates are highly variable and heterogeneity is due to differences in methodology than to cultural influences.
Prevalence of anxiety disorders and their comorbidity with mood and addictive disorders
Anxiety disorders, especially social and simple phobias, appear to have an early onset in adolescence with potentially severe consequences, predisposing those affected to greater vulnerability to major depression and addictive disorders.
Guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder in primary care
A combination of medication and cognitive behavior/exposure therapy was shown to be a clinically desired treatment strategy and may improve treatment of anxiety disorders, OCD, and PTSD in primary care.
Generalized anxiety disorder in women. A population-based twin study.
GAD is a moderately familial disorder and the tendency for GAD to run in families seems to be due largely or entirely to genetic factors shared between relatives rather than to the effects of the familial environment.
Overview of key data from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD).
Females, younger participants, the unmarried, and the unemployed were more at risk, and comorbidity was prevalent, and Associated levels of disability and reductions in quality of life exceeded levels seen in patients with chronic physical conditions.
Cannabidiol as a Potential Treatment for Anxiety Disorders
Overall, current evidence indicates CBD has considerable potential as a treatment for multiple anxiety disorders, with need for further study of chronic and therapeutic effects in relevant clinical populations.
Biological Factors Associated with Susceptibility to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
  • R. Yehuda
  • Psychology
    Canadian journal of psychiatry. Revue canadienne de psychiatrie
  • 1999
It is difficult to know to what extent the increased vulnerability to PTSD in family members of trauma survivors is related to biological or genetic phenomena, as opposed to experiential ones, because of the large degree of shared environment in families.
A positive association between anxiety disorders and cannabis use or cannabis use disorders in the general population- a meta-analysis of 31 studies
Anxiety is positively associated with cannabis use or CUD in cohorts drawn from some 112,000 non-institutionalised members of the general population of 10 countries.
Eating disorders and comorbidity: empirical, conceptual, and clinical implications.
To test conceptual models of the relationship between the eating disorders and these comorbid disorders, complex research paradigms are needed, including epidemiological studies, behavior-genetic studies, and longitudinal research designs.
The Numbers Count: Mental Disorders in America
Mental Disorders in America : Mood Disorders o Major Depressive Disorder o Dysthymic Disorder o Bipolar Disorder o Suicide  Schizophrenia • Anxiety Disorders o Panic Disorder • Generalized Anxiety Disorder.