Anxiety, cognition, and habit: A multiple memory systems perspective

  title={Anxiety, cognition, and habit: A multiple memory systems perspective},
  author={Mark G. Packard},
  journal={Brain Research},
  • M. Packard
  • Published 1 October 2009
  • Psychology, Biology
  • Brain Research
Emotional modulation of multiple memory systems: implications for the neurobiology of post-traumatic stress disorder
The traumatic memories of PTSD patients can be deficient in hippocampus-dependent contextual or autobiographical aspects, and enhanced in responding to trauma-related cues, which it is suggested may reflect increased involvement of the dorsal striatum.
Factors that influence the relative use of multiple memory systems
Examination of several factors, including information compatibility, temporal sequence of training, the visual sensory environment, reinforcement parameters, emotional arousal, and memory modulatory systems, indicates that despite their anatomical and functional distinctiveness, hippocampal‐ and dorsolateral striatal‐dependent memory systems may potentially interact.
Amygdala and Emotional Modulation of Multiple Memory Systems
Evidence indicates that the effect of emotion on different kinds of memory critically depends on a modulatory role of the basolateral amygdala (BLA), which may enhance stress hormone activity, modulate competition between memory systems, and alter synaptic plasticity.
Memory Systems and the Addicted Brain
The hypothesis that anatomically distinct memory systems differentially contribute to the development of drug addiction and relapse is revisited as it was originally proposed 20 years ago and highlights several recent developments.
Impaired Spatial Memory and Enhanced Habit Memory in a Rat Model of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder
The influence of SPS on hippocampal spatial memory and DLS habit memory observed in the present study may be relevant to understanding some common features of PTSD, including hippocampal memory deficits, habit-like avoidance responses to trauma-related stimuli, and greater likelihood of developing drug addiction and alcoholism.
The relationships between trait anxiety, place recognition memory, and learning strategy


The amygdala modulates the consolidation of memories of emotionally arousing experiences.
  • J. D. McGaugh
  • Biology, Psychology
    Annual review of neuroscience
  • 2004
Findings from animal and human studies indicate that the amygdala mediates the memory-modulating effects of adrenal stress hormones and several classes of neurotransmitters and plays a key role in enabling emotionally significant experiences to be well remembered.
Effects of emotional arousal on multiple memory systems: evidence from declarative and procedural learning.
A picture recognition and a weather prediction task (WP) task (a probabilistic classification learning task) is utilized, which have been shown to rely on hippocampal- and striatum-based memory systems, respectively, to suggest a potential dissociation between how readily emotional arousal influences hippocampus-dependent and Striatum-dependent memory systems in humans.
Amygdala Is Critical for Stress-Induced Modulation of Hippocampal Long-Term Potentiation and Learning
It is indicated that an intact amygdala is necessary for the expression of the modulatory effects of stress on hippocampal LTP and memory.
Stress modulates the use of spatial versus stimulus-response learning strategies in humans.
Taking together, stress prior to learning facilitated simple stimulus-response learning strategies in humans-at the expense of a more cognitive learning strategy.
Learning and memory functions of the Basal Ganglia.
Evidence suggests that during learning, basal ganglia and medial temporal lobe memory systems are activated simultaneously and that in some learning situations competitive interference exists between these two systems.
Interactive memory systems in the human brain
Examination of classification learning using event-related FMRI showed rapid modulation of activity in these regions at the beginning of learning, suggesting that subjects relied upon the medial temporal lobe early in learning, but this dependence rapidly declined with training, as predicted by previous computational models of associative learning.