The myrmeoleontoid Neuroptera fauna of Kyrgyzstan comprises 34 species-group taxa, among which 23 are recorded from the republic for the first time. Epacanthaclisis alaica Krivokhatsky, 1998 is known only from the holotype collected in the Alai Mt. Range; Kirghizoleon cubitalis Krivokhatsky et Zakharenko, 1994 is known from Kyrgyzstan and from the Hissar Mt. country in Tajikistan; and Mesonemurus vartianorum Hölzel, 1972 is distributed from the Tien Shan to Afghanistan. 26 species are common in Kyrgyzstan and are fairly evenly distributed over its territory. New synonymies are established: Macronemurus persicus (Navás, 1915) = Barreja persica Navás, 1915, = Barreja amoena Hölzel, 1972, syn. n.; Myrmecaelurus acerbus (Walker) = Myrmeleon acerbus Walker, 1853; = Myrmecaelurus varians Navás, 1913, syn. n.; = Myrmecaelurus aequans Navás, 1913, syn. n.; = Myrmecaelurus nematicus Navás, 1932, syn. n. The polymorphous structure of the widely variable Macronemurus persicus is shown, and three its color morphs are distinguished: Macronemurus persicus var. persica (Navás, 1915), var. graciosa var. n., and var. amoena (Hölzel, 1972). Data on the antlion and owlfly fauna of some other Palaearctic countries are supplemented.