Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are at an increased risk of lymphomas, but mechanisms underlying this association are obscure. Recently, it has been shown that antiribosomal-P protein (anti-P) antibodies cross-react with phospholipids and enhance the production of cytokines which may influence lymphomagenesis. We report a 46-year-old woman who suffered high grade diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (DLBCL) 28 months after the diagnosis of SLE. Development of lymphoma was associated with occurrence of serum monoclonal IgM, and pronounced prolongation of phospholipid-dependent clotting tests. Anti-P IgG antibodies were highly positive both on HEp-2 cells and in ELISA test. Anticardiolipin, anti-beta2 glycoprotein I, and antiprothrombin IgM antibodies have also been found in high concentrations. Complete remission of DLBCL and SLE, with normalisation of clotting tests, and disappearance of M component was achieved with administration of rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone. The progression of SLE to DLBCL associated with presence of anti-P antibodies has not been previously reported. This association may not be coincidental, but further investigations are required to confirm this hypothesis.