Antiretroviral therapy, interferon sensitivity, and virologic setpoint in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus coinfected patients

  title={Antiretroviral therapy, interferon sensitivity, and virologic setpoint in human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus coinfected patients},
  author={Ashwin Balagopal and Abraham J. Kandathil and Yvonne Higgins and John J. Wood and Justin Richer and Jeffrey Quinn and Lois Eldred and Zhiping Li and Stuart C. Ray and Mark S. Sulkowski and David L. Thomas},
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) cause substantial mortality, especially in persons chronically infected with both viruses. HIV infection raises plasma HCV RNA levels and diminishes the response to exogenous alpha interferon (IFN). The degree to which antiretroviral therapy (ART) control of infection overcomes these HIV effects is unknown. Participants with HIV‐HCV coinfection were enrolled in a trial to measure HCV viral kinetics after IFN administration (ΔHCVIFN… 
Antiretroviral therapy for HIV and intrahepatic hepatitis C virus replication
The data suggest that HIV affects the pathogenesis of HCV infection by an NK/NK T-cell-mediated mechanism that may involve HLA-E and can be rescued, at least in part, by ART.
Interferon-containing and interferon-free HCV therapy for HIV-infected patients.
There is mounting optimism that INFα-free, oral HCV treatments will further improve efficacy, and more importantly, increase access to treatment for many coinfected patients.
The Influence of Protease Inhibitors on the Evolution of Hepatitis C in Patients with HIV and HCV Co-Infection
The negative role of HCV on immunological status and in liver fibrosis in co-infected patients under combined antiretroviral treatment, containing PI boosted with ritonavir, is demonstrated.
Current treatment for hepatitis C virus/human immunodeficiency virus coinfection in adults
This review will summarize the current management of HIV/HCV coinfection, including drug-drug interactions and HCV reinfection due to the high risk behavior of these patients.
Management of acute and chronic HCV infection in persons with HIV coinfection.
Intracellular HIV-1 RNA and CD4+ T-cell activation in patients starting antiretrovirals
Months of ART led to a marked decrease in cell-associated HIV-1 RNA and interferon-stimulated genes expression in activated CD4+ T cells that were strongly associated with the reduction in the proportion of activatedCD4+T cells.
HIV influences clustering and intracellular replication of hepatitis C virus
Observations show that HIV coinfection impacts intracellular accumulation of HCV RNA and the clustering ofHCV‐infected cells, but to a less extent the fraction of HCVs infected cells.
Decreased Activated CD4+ T Cell Repertoire Diversity After Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-1/HCV Coinfection Correlates with CD4+ T Cell Recovery.
Insight is provided into the dynamic relationship between activated CD4+ TCR diversity and CD4/HCV coinfected individuals after suppression of HIV-1 viremia and the association of decreased activation of T cell receptor sequences may represent loss of nonspecifically activated TCR clonotypes, and possibly selective expansion of specifically activatedCD4+ clones.
People with HIV-1 Demonstrate Type 1 Interferon Refractoriness Associated with Upregulated USP18
A new mechanism by which HIV-1 contributes to innate immune dysfunction in PLWH through the continuous production of type 1 IFN that induces a refractory state of responsiveness is illuminated.
CMPK2 and BCL-G are associated with type 1 interferon–induced HIV restriction in humans
Novel antiviral molecules that are linked with IFN-mediated restriction of HIV in humans are revealed, including CMPK2 and BCL-G, which are associated with HIV restriction in humans.


Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dynamics during HCV treatment in HCV/HIV coinfection.
Although the early viral kinetics of coinfected subjects treated with PEG-IFN or IFN differ from those of singly infected subjects, the treatment response seems unaffected and suggests that coinfection may contribute to a slower clearance of HCV.
Viral kinetics in hepatitis C or hepatitis C/human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.
Modeling with pooled parameters suggests baseline viral load is a key factor in time to response in this cohort of HCV/HIV-co-infected patients and efficiency was associated significantly with viral clearance.
Changes in Hepatitis C Viral Response After Initiation of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Control of HIV Viremia in Chronically Co-infected Individuals
Control of HIV viremia may result in an early increase in HCV viresmia, and for every 1 log decrease of HIV VL there was a 0.14 log increase of HCV VL, indicating the exact mechanism of this flare seen with control of HIVviremia is unknown.
Changes in hepatitis C viral response after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy and control of HIV viremia in chronically co-infected individuals.
Controlling HIV infection with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) alone was not able to eliminate or significantly reduce the HCV viremia in this cohort of co-infected patients.
Cellular immune responses to HCV core increase and HCV RNA levels decrease during successful antiretroviral therapy
Successful cART is associated with increasing cellular immune responses to HCV core peptides and with a slight long-term decrease in HCV RNA levels, in line with the favourable clinical effects of cART on the natural history of hepatitis C and with the current recommendation to start cART earlier in HCVs coinfected individuals.
Liver injury and changes in hepatitis C Virus (HCV) RNA load associated with protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy for treatment-naive HCV-HIV-coinfected patients: lopinavir-ritonavir versus nelfinavir.
  • K. Sherman, N. Shire, B. D. da Silva
  • Medicine, Biology
    Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • 2005
A low baseline CD4+ cell count is associated with persistent increases in the HCV RNA load in nelfinavir-treated patients, and results warrant careful interpretation of abnormalities in the ALT load after HAART initiation in HCV-HIV-coinfected patients to prevent premature discontinuation of treatment.
Changes in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Viral Load and Interferon-&agr; Levels in HIV/HCV-Coinfected Patients Treated With Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
In patients with baseline HIV titer >10,000 copies/mL, suppression of HIV replication by HAART was associated with an increase in HCV titer and a decrease in endogenous IFN-&agr; levels.
Effect of human immunodeficiency virus on hepatitis C virus infection among injecting drug users.
While HIV infection and possibly HIV progression are associated with increased HCV RNA levels, other factors appear to affect biochemical and virologic markers of HCV infection in some dually infected persons.
Differential antiviral effect of PEG-interferon-α-2b on HIV and HCV in the treatment of HIV/HCV co-infected patients
Fitting of HIV kinetics with known half-lives of free virus and infected cells indicates that the major effect of IFN on HIV is to block de novo infection rather than to block virion production.
In HCV-co-infected patients undergoing HAART, immune recovery is associated with a persistent increase in HCV RNA, especially with baseline CD4 cell counts < 350 cells/mm3.