Antiquity of cleptoparasitism among bees revealed by morphometric and phylogenetic analysis of a Paleocene fossil nomadine (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

@article{Dehon2017AntiquityOC,
  title={Antiquity of cleptoparasitism among bees revealed by morphometric and phylogenetic analysis of a Paleocene fossil nomadine (Hymenoptera: Apidae)},
  author={Manuel Dehon and Adrien Perrard and Michael S. Engel and Andr{\'e} Nel and Denis Michez},
  journal={Systematic Entomology},
  year={2017},
  volume={42}
}
Cleptoparasitism is a way of life involving the theft of resources by one animal from another. This behaviour occurs in many bee tribes but its origin and evolution remain obscure, particularly owing to the relative scarcity of bees in the fossil record. Hitherto, no fossil evidence has been recorded to trace the origin of cleptoparasitim among bees. In the current study, we present the first cleptoparasitic bee fossil, providing analyses of its taxonomic affinities and a complete description… 

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