• Corpus ID: 43761289

Antioxidants used in skin care formulations.

  title={Antioxidants used in skin care formulations.},
  author={I Bogdan Allemann and Leslie S. Baumann},
  journal={Skin therapy letter},
  volume={13 7},
The formation of free radicals is a widely accepted pivotal mechanism leading to skin aging. Free radicals are highly reactive molecules with unpaired electrons that can directly damage various cellular structural membranes, lipids, proteins, and DNA. The damaging effects of these reactive oxygen species are induced internally during normal metabolism and externally through various oxidative stresses. The production of free radicals increases with age, while the endogenous defense mechanisms… 

An overview about oxidation in clinical practice of skin aging*

The main evidence of the benefits brought by the topical application of antioxidants in the skin is summarized, considering the amplitude of the indicative performance of antioxidant activity by in vitro and ex-vivo tests as well as in vivo tests.

Achieving the Balance between ROS and Antioxidants: When to Use the Synthetic Antioxidants

There is a need for accurate determination of individual's oxidative stress levels before prescribing the supplement antioxidants, as both extremes, oxidative and antioxidative stress, are damaging.

Cutaneous delivery of natural antioxidants: the enhancement approaches.

The skin delivery systems for natural antioxidant permeation that have been developed during the last decade include vitamins, polyphenols, and carotenoids, which are used in skin protection, mechanisms of antioxidant activity on the skin, and formulation designs for enhancing absorption and efficacy.

DNA macroarray study of skin aging‐related genes expression modulation by antioxidant plant extracts on a replicative senescence model of human dermal fibroblasts

The collective transcriptional effects of the three antioxidant extracts suggest interesting antiaging properties which could be utilized in nutraceutical antiaging formulations.

Evaluation of the Antioxidant Capacity and Protective Effects of a Comprehensive Topical Antioxidant Containing Water-soluble, Enzymatic, and Lipid-soluble Antioxidants.

These studies demonstrate WEL-DS's innate ability to quench free radicals, protect skin from the oxidizing effects of UV radiation, and reduce the visible effects of facial photodamage.

The Role of Carotenoids in Human Skin

The human skin, as the boundary organ between the human body and the environment, is under the constant influence of free radicals (FR), both from the outside in and from the inside out. Carotenoids

Influence of Repetitive UVA Stimulation on Skin Protection Capacity and Antioxidant Efficacy

Topically supplemented AOs provide a protective effect against oxidative stress for at least 3 days, supporting their widespread use in cosmetic products and taking endogenous defense mechanisms into account.

Protective effects of a comprehensive topical antioxidant against ozone-induced damage in a reconstructed human skin model

A comprehensive topical antioxidant significantly diminished O 3 -induced oxidative damage in a human epidermal skin model and inhibited damage in tissues exposed to O 3 with no significant changes in epidermis structure.

Lycopene and Melatonin: Antioxidant Compounds in Cosmetic Formulations

Evaluating the clinical efficacy of cosmetic formulations containing lycopene and melatonin antioxidants in healthy women found there were significant differences between them.

Antioxidant Efficacy on Human Skin in vivo Investigated by UVA-Induced Chemiluminescence Decay Analysis via Induced Chemiluminescence of Human Skin

ICL-S is also a valuable tool for the efficacy testing of topically applied antioxidants under in vivo conditions in humans and is also essential for the investigation of antioxidant-mediated effects.



Natural phenolics in the prevention of UV-induced skin damage. A review.

This review strives to summarize the findings of studies performed to date, regarding the photoprotective effects of plant phenolics on the skin damage induced by UV radiation.

The role of vitamin E in normal and damaged skin

Vitamin E is the major naturally occurring lipid-soluble non-enzymatic antioxidant protecting skin from the adverse effects of oxidative stress including photoaging, and its chemistry and its physiological function as a major antioxidative and anti-inflammatory agent, in particular with respect to its photoprotective, antiphotoaging properties.

Idebenone: a new antioxidant – Part I. Relative assessment of oxidative stress protection capacity compared to commonly known antioxidants

A multistep in vitro process utilizing a variety of biochemical and cell biological methods combined with in vivo studies was designed to compare the oxidative stress protective capacity of commonly used antioxidants, and the higher the score, the more effective the overall oxidative stress protection capacity of the antioxidant became.

Impairment of enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants in skin by UVB irradiation.

It is indicated that immediately after exposure to a large fluence of ultraviolet radiation the enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidant capacity of skin decreases significantly.

Ferulic acid stabilizes a solution of vitamins C and E and doubles its photoprotection of skin.

This combination of pure natural low molecular weight antioxidants provides meaningful synergistic protection against oxidative stress in skin and should be useful for protection against photoaging and skin cancer.

Topical vitamin C protects porcine skin from ultraviolet radiation‐induced damage

Evidence is provided that the vitamin C levels of the skin can be severely depleted after UV irradiation, which would lower this organ's innate protective mechanism as well as leaving it at risk of impaired healing after photoinduced damage.


  • H. Black
  • Biology, Chemistry
    Photochemistry and photobiology
  • 1987
Free radicals are chemical species characterized by an odd number of orbital electrons or by pairs of electrons of similar directional spin isolated singly in separate orbitals and usually exhibit an extremely short half‐life, although due to steric and resonance effects some exceptions occur.

Photoprotection of UV-Irradiated Human Skin: An Antioxidative Combination of Vitamins E and C, Carotenoids, Selenium and Proanthocyanidins

By the combination of antioxidants, such as in the formulation of Seresis, a selective protection of the skin against irradiation can be achieved, which might be important for future recommendations for immediate suppression of the early phase of UV-induced erythema, that means pharmacological prevention of sunburn reaction as well as subsequent chronic skin damage.

Effectiveness of antioxidants (vitamin C and E) with and without sunscreens as topical photoprotectants.

It is reported that (in swine skin) vitamin C is capable of additive protection against acute UVB damage when combined with a UVB sunscreen, and the importance of combining the compounds with known sunscreens to maximize photoprotection is suggested.