Antioxidant and bioenergetic coupling between neurons and astrocytes.

@article{FernndezFernndez2012AntioxidantAB,
  title={Antioxidant and bioenergetic coupling between neurons and astrocytes.},
  author={Seila Fern{\'a}ndez-Fern{\'a}ndez and {\'A}ngeles Almeida and Juan Pedro Bola{\~n}os},
  journal={The Biochemical journal},
  year={2012},
  volume={443 1},
  pages={
          3-11
        }
}
Oxidative and nitrosative stress underlie the pathogenesis of a broad range of human diseases, in particular neurodegenerative disorders. Within the brain, neurons are the cells most vulnerable to excess reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; their survival relies on the antioxidant protection promoted by neighbouring astrocytes. However, neurons are also intrinsically equipped with a biochemical mechanism that links glucose metabolism to antioxidant defence. Neurons actively metabolize glucose… 

Figures from this paper

Adaptive regulation of the brain’s antioxidant defences by neurons and astrocytes

Edinburgh Research Explorer Adaptive regulation of the brain's antioxidant defences by neurons and astrocytes

TLDR
Different homeostatic mechanisms in neurons and astro- cytes together combine to promote neuronal resistance to oxidative insults, and further mechanisms underlying redox homeostasis in the brain are likely to be uncovered.

Antioxidants and Neuron-Astrocyte Interplay in Brain Physiology: Melatonin, a Neighbor to Rely on

TLDR
This manuscript is a review focused onto the role of astrocytes in the protection of neurons against oxidative stress and how melatonin can contribute to the maintenance of brain homeostasis and the effects of melatonin on the physiology of neurons and astroCytes.

Intertwined ROS and Metabolic Signaling at the Neuron-Astrocyte Interface

TLDR
Major findings on how ROS and metabolism differ between neural cells but merge to define reciprocal signalling pathways are recapitulate, ultimately defining neural function and fate.

Glutathione-Dependent Detoxification Processes in Astrocytes

TLDR
The current knowledge on the GSH metabolism of astrocytes is reviewed with a special emphasis on GSH-dependent detoxification processes.

The role of astrocytes in oxidative stress of central nervous system: A mixed blessing

TLDR
The roles of astrocytes in redox regulation and the corresponding mechanisms under both normal and different pathological conditions are summed up.

The Role of Astrocytes in the Central Nervous System Focused on BK Channel and Heme Oxygenase Metabolites: A Review

TLDR
The role of the BK channel and antioxidant agents such as heme oxygenase metabolites following CNS injury is discussed and a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of astrocytes’ functions in the healthy and diseased brains will greatly contribute to the development of therapeutic approaches after CNS injury.

Do glial cells play an anti-oxidative role in Huntington's disease?

TLDR
The main purposes of this review are to mention the connection between Huntington's disease (HD) and oxidative stress, to summarize the characteristics and functions of glial cells in HD, to state the cross talk between neurons and glial Cells, and to emphasize the conclusive role of activation of Keap1-Nrf2-ARE pathway in glia cells against oxidative stress in HD.

Prevention of neuronal apoptosis by astrocytes through thiol-mediated stress response modulation and accelerated recovery from proteotoxic stress

TLDR
Astrocytic thiol supply increased neuronal resilience to various proteotoxic stressors by simultaneously attenuating cell death-related stress responses, and enhancing the recovery from proteot toxic stress through upregulation of NRF-1.
...

References

SHOWING 1-10 OF 163 REFERENCES

Regulation of neuronal oxidative and nitrosative stress by endogenous protective pathways and disease processes.

TLDR
The emerging importance of master regulators of antioxidant defenses such as nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) is revealing ways through which intrinsic defenses may be manipulated to combat oxidative/nitrosative stress.

Coordinate Regulation of Glutathione Biosynthesis and Release by Nrf2-Expressing Glia Potently Protects Neurons from Oxidative Stress

TLDR
It is shown that Nrf2 overexpression can reengineer neurons to express this glial pathway and enhance antioxidant gene expression and protect fully cocultured naive neurons from oxidative glutamate toxicity associated with glutathione (GSH) depletion.

The pentose‐phosphate pathway in neuronal survival against nitrosative stress

TLDR
The antioxidant fragility of neurons may be compensated by the PPP at the expense of inhibiting bioenergetic glycolysis, suggesting resistance to nitrosative stress.

Oxidative stress and neurodegeneration: where are we now?

TLDR
After a long lag period, therapeutic and other interventions based on a knowledge of redox biology are on the horizon for at least some of the neurodegenerative diseases.

Peroxynitrite Protects Neurons against Nitric Oxide-mediated Apoptosis

TLDR
It is suggested that G6PD activation represents a novel role for peroxynitrite in neuroprotection against nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis and rapid stimulation of pentose phosphate pathway activity and the accumulation of NADPH, an essential cofactor for glutathione regeneration.

Controlled enzymatic production of astrocytic hydrogen peroxide protects neurons from oxidative stress via an Nrf2-independent pathway

TLDR
The utility of rgDAAO for spatially and temporally controlling intracellular H2O2 concentrations to uncover unique astrocyte-dependent neuroprotective mechanisms is demonstrated and is demonstrated to be a plausible mechanism for H 2O2-induced neuroprotection.

Role of nitric oxide in neurodegenerative diseases.

TLDR
Evidence is provided that the neuronal production of nitric oxide and the formation of peroxynitrite occurs in vivo, a highly reactive molecule known to initiate lipid peroxidation, hydroxylation and nitration of aromatic amino acid residues, and sulfhydryl oxidation of proteins.

Assessment of the Role of the Glutathione and Pentose Phosphate Pathways in the Protection of Primary Cerebrocortical Cultures from Oxidative Stress

TLDR
The results implicate the Fenton reaction, reflect the pivotal role of GPx in H2O2 detoxification, and contribute to the understanding of the etiological role of free radicals in neuropathological conditions.
...