Impact of the medical specialty on knowledge regarding multidrug-resistant organisms and strategies toward antimicrobial stewardship
Primary objective was to identify the (1) relationship of clinical severity of urosepsis with the pathogen spectrum and resistance and (2) appropriateness of using the pathogen spectrum and resistance rates of health-care-associated urinary tract infections (HAUTI) as representative of urosepsis. The secondary objective was to provide an overview of the pathogens and their resistance profile in patients with urosepsis. A point prevalence study carried out in 70 countries (2003–2013). Population studied included; 408 individuals with microbiologically proven urosepsis, 1606 individuals with microbiological proof of HAUTI and 27,542 individuals hospitalised in urology wards. Main outcomes are pathogens and resistance identified in HAUTIs and urosepsis including its clinical severity. A statistical model that included demographic factors (study year, geographical location, hospital setting) was used for analysis. Amongst urology practices, the prevalence of microbiologically proven HAUTI and urosepsis was 5.8 and 1.5 %, respectively. Frequent pathogens in urosepsis were E. coli (43 %), Enterococcus spp. (11 %), P. aeruginosa (10 %) and Klebsiella spp. (10 %). Resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics was high and rates ranged from 8 % (imipenem) to 62 % (aminopenicillin/β lactamase inhibitors); 45 % of Enterobacteriaceae and 21 % of P. aeruginosa were multidrug-resistant. Resistance rates in urosepsis were higher than in other clinical diagnosis of HAUTI (Likelihood ratio <0.05). It is not appropriate to use the pathogen spectrum and resistance rates of other HAUTIs as representative of urosepsis to decide on empirical treatment of urosepsis. Resistance rates in urosepsis are high, and precautions should be made to avoid further increase.