Collagen-based silver nanoparticles for biological applications: synthesis and characterization
Two surfactant lipid preparations (SLPs) were investigated to determine their mechanism of antimicrobial action. 8N8, a water-in-oil emulsion, and W60C, a liposome, both have bactericidal activity against Gram-positive bacteria and non-enteric Gram-negative bacteria. Additionally, W60C is bactericidal for enteric Gram-negative bacilli when suspended in deionized water. Zeta potential measurements suggested that the resistance of Gram-negative bacilli to 8N8 might be caused by ionic repulsion. Addition of 50 micromol 1(-1) ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid in 100 mmol 1(-1) Tris buffer to either SLPs yielded efficient bactericidal activity against Gram-negative bacilli. This appeared to be due to disruption of the outer membrane and the chelation of divalent cations, as the addition of excess calcium inhibited the antimicrobial effect. Electron microscopy studies documented that 8N8 disrupts the bacterial cell wall, lysing the bacteria, while W60C fuses and internalizes within the cell, causing damage without immediate cell lysis. Understanding the mechanisms of action of these biocidal formulations will help to produce improved formulations with broader spectra of activity.