Pneumonia is a form of lung infection that may be caused by various micro-organisms. The predominant site of infection in pneumonia is debatable. Advances in the fields of diagnostic and therapeutic medicine have had a less than optimal effect on the outcome of pneumonia and one of the many causes is likely to be inadequate antimicrobial concentrations at the site of infection in lung tissue. Traditional antimicrobial therapy guidelines are based on indirect modelling from blood antimicrobial levels. However, studies both in humans and animals have shown the fallacy of this concept in various tissues. Many different methods have been employed to study lung tissue antimicrobial levels with limited success, and each has limitations that diminish their utility. An emerging technique being used to study the pharmacokinetics of antimicrobial agents in lung tissue is microdialysis. Development of microdialysis catheters, along with improvement in analytical techniques, has improved the accuracy of the data. Unfortunately, very few studies have reported the use of microdialysis in lung tissue, and even fewer antimicrobial classes have been studied. These studies generally suggest that this technique is a safe and effective way of assessing the pharmacokinetics of antimicrobial agents in lung tissue. Further descriptive studies need to be conducted to study the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of different antimicrobial classes in lung tissue. Data emanating from these studies could inform decisions for appropriate dosing schedules of antimicrobial agents in pneumonia.