Antigenic variation at the infected red cell surface in malaria.

  title={Antigenic variation at the infected red cell surface in malaria.},
  author={Sue A Kyes and Paul Horrocks and Chris I Newbold},
  journal={Annual review of microbiology},
Many pathogens that either rely on an insect vector to complete their life cycle (e.g., Trypanosoma spp. and Borrelia spp.) or exist in a unique ecological niche where transmission from host to host is sporadic (e.g., Neisseria spp.) have evolved strategies to maintain infection of their mammalian hosts for long periods of time in order to ensure their survival. Because they have to survive in the face of a fully functional immune system, a common feature of many of these organisms is their… CONTINUE READING


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