OBJECTIVE The authors present a survey of available pharmacological possibilities of treatment of nausea and vomiting aimed at their application in oncological therapy of gynecological neoplastic diseases. TYPE OF THE STUDY A review article. NAME AND ADDRESS OF THE INSTITUTION: Gynecological-Obstetrical Clinic, First Medical Faculty, Charles University and General Faculty Hospital, Praha. SUBJECT AND METHOD OF THE STUDY: A survey of published data from the Czech and foreign professional literature. CONCLUSION 5-HT3 receptor antagonists take up the most important position in the antiemetic treatment of oncological patients. They efficiently prevent and treat vomiting induced by anticancer drugs with high and very high emetogenic effect. They have been used as monotherapy or in combination with corticoids. In the treatment of nausea and vomiting or vomiting induced by anticancer drugs with medium or light emetogenic effect, antiemetic preparations from the corticoid series and dopamine receptor antagonists may be recommended. In the treatment of anticipation vomiting, benzodiazepines are indicated for their anxiolytic and psychosedative influence.