Antidepressant-Like Effects of κ-Opioid Receptor Antagonists in the Forced Swim Test in Rats

@article{Mague2003AntidepressantLikeEO,
  title={Antidepressant-Like Effects of $\kappa$-Opioid Receptor Antagonists in the Forced Swim Test in Rats},
  author={Stephen D. Mague and Andrea M. Pliakas and Mark S. Todtenkopf and Hilarie C. Tomasiewicz and Yan Zhang and William C. Jun. Stevens and Robert M Jones and Philip S. Portoghese and William A. Carlezon},
  journal={Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics},
  year={2003},
  volume={305},
  pages={323 - 330}
}
We showed previously that cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) within the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rats regulates immobility in the forced swim test (FST), an assay used to study depression. Because CREB regulates expression of dynorphin (which acts at κ-opioid receptors) in NAc neurons, these findings raised the possibility that κ-receptors mediate immobility behaviors in the FST. Here, we report that i.c.v. administration of the κ-antagonist nor-binaltorphimine dose dependently… 

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