Anticipation of emotionally aversive visual stimuli activates right insula

@article{Simmons2004AnticipationOE,
  title={Anticipation of emotionally aversive visual stimuli activates right insula},
  author={Alan N. Simmons and Scott C. Matthews and Murray B. Stein and Martin P. Paulus},
  journal={NeuroReport},
  year={2004},
  volume={15},
  pages={2261-2265}
}
Understanding the neural substrates of anticipation is required for a comprehensive model of the ways in which anxiety influences information processing. While it is apparent that the insula and medial frontal cortex are involved in processing anticipation of physical (i.e., painful) stimuli, their role in processing anticipation of aversive affective stimuli has yet to be determined. Twenty-eight healthy non-phobic volunteers observed aversive affective images (spiders and snakes) that were… 
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The data suggest that the insular cortex encodes prospective aversive events in terms of their modality-specific features, and whether they match with subsequent stimulations.
Anticipation of aversive stimuli activates extended amygdala in unipolar depression.
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